aminolevulinic acid
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 926
Marek Mazurek ◽  
Dariusz Szczepanek ◽  
Anna Orzyłowska ◽  
Radosław Rola

Glial tumors are one of the most common lesions of the central nervous system. Despite the implementation of appropriate treatment, the prognosis is not successful. As shown in the literature, maximal tumor resection is a key element in improving therapeutic outcome. One of the methods to achieve it is the use of fluorescent intraoperative navigation with 5-aminolevulinic acid. Unfortunately, often the level of fluorescence emitted is not satisfactory, resulting in difficulties in the course of surgery. This article summarizes currently available knowledge regarding differences in the level of emitted fluorescence. It may depend on both the histological type and the genetic profile of the tumor, which is reflected in the activity and expression of enzymes involved in the intracellular metabolism of fluorescent dyes, such as PBGD, FECH, UROS, and ALAS. The transport of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its metabolites across the blood–brain barrier and cell membranes mediated by transporters, such as ABCB6 and ABCG2, is also important. Accompanying therapies, such as antiepileptic drugs or steroids, also have an impact on light emission by tumor cells. Accurate determination of the factors influencing the fluorescence of 5-aminolevulinic acid-treated cells may contribute to the improvement of fluorescence navigation in patients with highly malignant gliomas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 274-277
Sachin Patharkar ◽  
Neelam Patil ◽  
Siddhesh Thorat ◽  
Alka Nerurkar ◽  
Umesh Shinde ◽  

Lead poisoning is a phenomenon which with growing globalization is being a subject of worry.ALA i.e Amino levulinic acid is a precursor of hemoglobin, which is synthesized in mitochondria by two main components succinyl Co-A and glycine in presence of ALA-S i.e. amino levulinic acid-synthase. Urinary ALA (ALA-U) has been a recommended biomarker for lead exposure. Inhibition of Amino levulinic acid-dehydratase (ALA-D) results into activation of ALA-S which further synthesizes ALA, excess of ALA is accumulated in the blood, plasma, urine. Present manuscript is focused on the estimation of levels of ALA in the urine of gasoline and pertol pump workers, by acidifying the urine to extract out ALA and reading it colorimetrically as they are exposed to fumes released by gasoline, petrol, and petroleum products which contains lead. Awareness and safety measures such as protective masks and gears should be provided by the respective organisations to the workers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Wiebke K. Guder ◽  
Wolfgang Hartmann ◽  
Clarissa Buhles ◽  
Maike Burdack ◽  
Maike Busch ◽  

Abstract Background Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and other contrast agents has shown its efficacy in improving resection margins, local recurrence and survival rates in several medical disciplines. It is the objective of this study to analyze the engraftment rate of musculoskeletal tumor specimens on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM), the rate of tumor fluorescence (PDD), and the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) after exposure of tumors to 5-ALA in an in vivo environment. Methods A total of 486 CAMs were inoculated with macroscopic tumor grafts (n = 26; n = 478 eggs) and primary cell culture suspensions (n = 2; n = 8 eggs) from 26 patients on day 10 of egg development. On day 16, 2 mg/200 µl 5-ALA were topically applied per egg. After 4 h of incubation, Protoporphyrin IX was excited using blue light (420 ± 10 nm). Tumor fluorescence (PDD) was photo-documented. A subgroup of specimens was additionally exposed to red light (635 nm ± 10 nm; PDT). After the termination of the experiment, CAM-grown tumors were histopathologically analyzed. Results Benign and borderline tumors (chondroblastoma, giant cell tumor of bone and atypical chondrogenic tumor) presented with high rates of detectable fluorescence. Comparable results were found for chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma among bone and dedifferentiated liposarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma among soft tissue sarcomas. Overall, tumor fluorescence was negative for 20.2%, single-positive (+) for 46.9% and double-positive (++) for 32.9% of macroscopic xenografts, and negative in 20% and (+) in 80% of primary cell culture tumors. Macroscopic tumor xenografts (n = 478) were identified as viable in 14.8%, partially viable in 2.9% and partially to completely regressive in 45.2%. All (n = 8) tumors grown from primary cell culture were viable. After PDT, tumor samples were found viable in 5.5%, partially viable in 5.5% and partially to completely regressive in 68%. Egg survival increased with decreasing PDT doses. Conclusions The CAM model proves to be a suitable in vivo model for the investigation of short-term observation questions in musculoskeletal tumors. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of PDT effects on musculoskeletal tumors and a possible incorporation of 5-ALA FGS in clinical Orthopedic Oncology care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 702
Shuya Tan ◽  
Jie Cao ◽  
Xinli Xia ◽  
Zhonghai Li

Priming is an adaptive strategy that improves plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. Stimuli from chemicals, abiotic cues, and pathogens can trigger the establishment of priming state. Priming with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a potential plant growth regulator, can enhance plant tolerance to the subsequent abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, heat, cold, and UV-B. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of ALA priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Here, we summarize recent progress made in the stress tolerance conferred by ALA priming in plants and provide the underlying molecular and physiology mechanisms of this phenomenon. Priming with ALA results in changes at the physiological, transcriptional, metabolic, and epigenetic levels, and enhances photosynthesis and antioxidant capacity, as well as nitrogen assimilation, which in turn increases the resistance of abiotic stresses. However, the signaling pathway of ALA, including receptors as well as key components, is currently unknown, which hinders the deeper understanding of the defense priming caused by ALA. In the future, there is an urgent need to reveal the molecular mechanisms by which ALA regulates plant development and enhances plant defense with the help of forward genetics, multi-omics technologies, as well as genome editing technology.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Elena Di Pierro ◽  
Francesca Granata ◽  
Michele De Canio ◽  
Mariateresa Rossi ◽  
Andrea Ricci ◽  

Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) are inherited disorders resulting from defects in two different enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway, i.e., ferrochelatase (FECH) and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase-2 (ALAS2), respectively. The ubiquitous FECH catalyzes the insertion of iron into the protoporphyrin ring to generate the final product, heme. After hemoglobinization, FECH can utilize other metals like zinc to bind the remainder of the protoporphyrin molecules, leading to the formation of zinc protoporphyrin. Therefore, FECH deficiency in EPP limits the formation of both heme and zinc protoporphyrin molecules. The erythroid-specific ALAS2 catalyses the synthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), from the union of glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, in the first step of the pathway in the erythron. In XLP, ALAS2 activity increases, resulting in the amplified formation of ALA, and iron becomes the rate-limiting factor for heme synthesis in the erythroid tissue. Both EPP and XLP lead to the systemic accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in blood, erythrocytes, and tissues causing the major symptom of cutaneous photosensitivity and several other less recognized signs that need to be considered. Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of EPP and XLP in recent years, a complete understanding of the factors governing the variability in clinical expression and the severity (progression) of the disease remains elusive. The present review provides an overview of both well-established facts and the latest findings regarding these rare diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
Mya Myat Ngwe Tun ◽  
Takaya Sakura ◽  
Yasuteru Sakurai ◽  
Yohei Kurosaki ◽  
Daniel Ken Inaoka ◽  

Abstract Background Genetic variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began to emerge in 2020 and have been spreading globally during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite the presence of different COVID-19 vaccines, the discovery of effective antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are still urgently needed. A natural amino acid, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), has exhibited both antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. In a previous study, we demonstrated an in vitro antiviral effect of 5-ALA against SARS-CoV-2 infection without significant cytotoxicity. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether 5-ALA with or without sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) can inhibit in vitro both the original SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain and its variants, including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta strains. Methods The antiviral activity of ALA with or without SFC was determined in Vero-E6 cell. The virus inhibition was quantified by real time RT-PCR. Results Co-administration of 5-ALA and SFC inhibited the Wuhan, Alpha and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 with IC50 values of 235, 173 and 397 µM, respectively, and the Beta and Gamma variants with IC50 values of 1311 and 1516 µM. Conclusion Our study suggests that 5-ALA with SFC warrants accelerated clinical evaluation as an antiviral drug candidate for treating patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Erasmo Barros da Silva JR ◽  
Ricardo Ramina ◽  
Maurício Coelho Neto ◽  
Guilherme Augusto de Souza Machado ◽  
Marcella Santos Cavalcanti ◽  

Abstract Introduction Fluorescence guidance with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a safe and reliable tool in total gross resection of intracranial tumors, especially malignant gliomas and cases of metastasis. In the present retrospective study, we have analyzed 5-ALA-induced fluorescence findings in different central nervous system (CNS) lesions to expand the indications of its use in differential diagnoses. Objectives To describe the indications and results of 5-ALA fluorescence in a series of 255 cases. Methods In 255 consecutive cases, we recorded age, gender, intraoperative 5-ALA fluorescence tumor response, and 5-ALA postresection status, as well the complications related to the method. Postresection was classified as ‘5-ALA free’ or ‘5-ALA residual’. The diagnosis of histopathological tumor was established according to the current classification of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results There were 195 (76.4%) 5-ALA positive cases, 124 (63.5%) of whom underwent the ‘5-ALA free’ resection. The findings in the positive cases were: 135 gliomas of all grades; 19 meningiomas; 4 hemangioblastomas; 1 solitary fibrous tumor; 27 metastases; 2 diffuse large B cell lymphomas; 2 cases of radionecrosis; 1 inflammatory disease; 2 cases of gliosis; 1 cysticercosis; and 1 immunoglobulin G4-related disease. Conclusion Fluorescence with 5-ALA can be observed in lesions other than malignant gliomas or metastases, including meningiomas, hemangioblastomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, and lymphomas. Although there is need for further evidence for the use of 5-ALA beyond high-grade gliomas, it may be a safe and reliable tool to improve resection in positive tumors or to guide the histopathologic analysis in biopsies.

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