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2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel J. Tilkorn ◽  
Heiko Sorg ◽  
Agnes Sanders ◽  
Manfred Köller ◽  
Peter Awakowicz ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives Autologous transplants are still the means of choice for bypass surgery. In addition to good tolerability, there is a reduced thrombogenicity and fewer neointima hyperplasia compared to artificial materials. However, since viable transplants are limited, attempts are being made to improve existing artificial vascular prosthesis material. Next to the reduction of thrombogenicity, a rapid endothelialization of the vascular graft should reduce intimal hyperplasia and thus prevent stenoses. The effect of newly developed silicon oxide coatings on the growth of endothelial cells was therefore the goal of this work in a cell culture study. Methods A woven, uncoated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) vessel prosthesis was used. The coating process was carried out in a low-pressure plasma reactor in a multi-step process. After preparation of the vacuum chamber hexamethyldisiloxane (HDMSO) with oxygen was evaporated using argon plasma. By this an approx. 1 nm thin adhesion promoter layer was separated from plasma and HMDSO. The silicone oxide barrier layer was applied to the PET vessel samples. The carbon content of the layer could be selectively altered by changing the HMDSO oxygen flow ratio, resulting in coatings of 100 nm, 500 nm, and 1,000 nm. In addition, two different oxygen-to-HMDSO ratios were used. To achieve a carbon coating as low as possible, the ratio was set to 200:1. A carbon-rich layer was obtained with the 1:1 setting. The various coatings were then examined for their surface texture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as by cell culture experiments for cell viability and growth using EA.hy 926 cells. Results SEM showed no changes in the surface morphology; however a layer thickness of 1,000 nm showed peeled off coating areas. Alamar blue assays showed a significantly higher metabolic activity (p=0.026) for the coating 500 nm, ratio 200:1 compared to untreated control samples and a significantly lower metabolic activity (p=0.037) of the coating 500 nm, ratio 1:1 compared to the coating 500 nm, ratio 200:1. This underlines the apparent tendency of the 1:1 coating to inhibit the metabolic activity of the cells, while the 200:1 coating increases the activity. Fluorescence microscopy after calcein acetoxymethyl ester (AM) staining showed no significant difference between the different coatings and the uncoated PET material. However, a tendency of the increased surface growth on the coating 500 nm, ratio 200:1, is shown. The coatings with the ratio 1:1 tend to be less densely covered. Conclusions The results of this work indicate a great potential in the silicon coating of vascular prosthesis material. The plasma coating can be carried out easy and gently. Cell culture experiments demonstrated a tendency towards better growth of the cells on the 200:1 ratio coating and a poorer growth on the carbon-rich coating 1:1 compared to the uncoated material. The coating with silicon oxide with a thickness of 500 nm and an oxygen-HMDSO ratio of 200:1, a particularly low-carbon layer, appears to be a coating, which should therefore be further investigated for its effects on thrombogenicity and intimal hyperplasia.


Author(s):  
Tim Jacobus Adrianus Staps ◽  
Tim Jacobus Maria Donders ◽  
Bart Platier ◽  
J Beckers

Abstract Negative ions are an important constituent of the spatial afterglow of atmospheric pressure plasmas, where the fundamental plasma-substrate interactions take place that are vital for applications such as biomedicine, material synthesis, and ambient air treatment. In this work, we use laser-induced photodetachment to liberate electrons from negative ions in the afterglow region of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet interacting with an argon-oxygen mixture, and microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy (MCRS) to detect the photodetached electrons. This diagnostic technique allows for the determination of the electron density and the effective collision frequency before, during and after the laser pulse was shot through the measurement volume with nanosecond time resolution. From a laser saturation study, it is concluded that O− is the dominant negative ion in the afterglow. Moreover, the decay of the photodetached electron density is found to be dominantly driven by the (re)formation of O− by dissociative attachment of electrons with O2. As a consequence, we identified the species and process responsible for the formation of negative ions in the spatial afterglow in our experiment.


Author(s):  
Yuanfu Yue ◽  
Vighneswara Siva Santosh Kumar Kondeti ◽  
Nader Sadeghi ◽  
Peter Bruggeman

Abstract While plasma-liquid interactions have been an important focus in the plasma research community, the impact of the strong coupling between plasma and liquid on plasma properties and processes remains not fully understood. In this work, we report on the impact of the applied voltage, pulse width and liquid conductivity on the plasma morphology and the OH generation for a positive pulsed DC atmospheric pressure plasma jet with He-0.1% H2O mixture interacting with a liquid cathode. We adopted diagnostic techniques of fast imaging, 2D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of OH and Thomson scattering spectroscopy. We show that plasma instabilities and enhanced evaporation occur and have a significant impact on the OH generation. At elevated plasma energies, it is found that the plasma contracts due to a thermal instability through Ohmic heating and the contraction coincides with a depletion in the OH density in the core due to electron impact dissociation. For lower plasma energies, the instability is suppressed/delayed by the equivalent series resistor of the liquid electrode. An estimation of the energy flux from the plasma to the liquid shows that the energy flux of the ions released into the liquid by positive ion hydration is dominant, and significantly larger than the energy needed to evaporate sufficient amount of water to account for the measured H2O concentration increase near the plasma-liquid interface.


Author(s):  
Naoki Shirai ◽  
Takuma Kaneko ◽  
Yuto Takamura ◽  
Koichi Sasaki

Abstract We have shown that measuring the surface tension is a useful scheme to examine the plasma-liquid interface in real-time. The surface tension was measured using a method based on the dispersion relation of an acoustic capillary wave excited on the water surface. The surface tension gradually increased with time, when the water surface was irradiated with the outside region of the spatial afterglow of an atmospheric-pressure plasma. The Marangoni effect associated with the localized increase in the surface tension was observed during the plasma irradiation. The surface tension decreased after the termination of the discharge. A correlation was found between the transient decrease in the surface tension and the variation of the OH radical density in the gas phase. No increase in the surface tension was observed in the solution containing a trapping agent for liquid-phase OH radicals. These experimental results suggest that OH radicals act to increase the surface tension. However, the behavior of the surface tension cannot be explained perfectly by considering only the action of OH radicals.


Plasma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 44-59
Author(s):  
Gerrit Wulf ◽  
Bernd Mayer ◽  
Uwe Lommatzsch

Plasma co-polymers (co-p) were deposited with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) using a precursor mixture containing hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and limonene. A coating with fragments from both precursors and with siloxane, carbonyl and nitrogen functional groups was deposited. The flow rate of limonene was found to be an important parameter for plasma co-polymerization to tune the formation and structure of the functional groups. The FTIR and XPS analysis indicates that with increasing flow rate of limonene a higher proportion of carbon is bound to silicon. This is related to a stronger incorporation of fragments from limonene into the siloxane network and a weaker fragmentation of HMDSO. The formation mechanism of the nitroxide and carboxyl groups can be mainly differentiated into in-plasma and post-plasma reactions, respectively.


2022 ◽  
pp. 152350
Author(s):  
Elisa Sainz-García ◽  
María López ◽  
Rodolfo Múgica-Vidal ◽  
Beatriz Rojo–Bezares ◽  
Carmen Lozano ◽  
...  

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