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Author(s):  
Gunasekar Manoharan ◽  
Bhargava Gottam

The vegetable Momordica charantia L., (family: Cucurbitaceae) is a scientific name of the plant and its fruit. It is also known by other names, for instance in the USA it is known as Bitter gourd or balsam pear while it’s referred to as the African cucumber in many African countries. M. charantia is believed to posse’s anti-carcinogenic properties and it can modulate its effect via xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress. This study was specifically designed to investigate the cellular mechanisms whereby α, β momorcharin an extract of M. charantia can induce cell death with the combination of Cyclophosphamide. Different concentration (200µM - 1000µM) of the α, β momorcharin fruit extract were treated (24 hrs incubation) separately with three different cancer cell lines 1321N1, Gos-3, U87-MG and normal L6 muscle cell line. The results also show that Cyclophosphamide (250 µg) with (1000 µM) of the α, β momorcharin extract of M. charantia, and result in significant decreases in cell viability for each cell line, these effects were additive compared to the individual effect of Cyclophosphamide.


Author(s):  
Wookbong Kwon ◽  
Seong-Kyoon Choi ◽  
Daehwan Kim ◽  
Hyeon-Gyeom Kim ◽  
Jin-Kyu Park ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The progression of prostate cancer (PC) to the highly aggressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) or neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a fatal condition and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we identified the novel transcriptional factor ZNF507 as a key mediator in the progression of PC to an aggressive state. Methods We analyzed ZNF507 expression in the data from various human PC database and high-grade PC patient samples. By establishment of ZNF507 knockdown and overexpression human PC cell lines, we assessed in vitro PC phenotype changes including cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion. By performing microarray with ZNF507 knockdown PC cells, we profiled the gene clusters affected by ZNF507 knockdown. Moreover, ZNF507 regulated key signal was evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Finally, we performed xenograft and in vivo metastasis assay to confirm the effect of ZNF507 knockdown in PC cells. Results We found that ZNF507 expression was increased, particularly in the highly graded PC. ZNF507 was also found to be associated with metastatic PC of a high grade. Loss- or gain-of-function–based analysis revealed that ZNF507 promotes the growth, survival, proliferation, and metastatic properties of PC (e.g., epithelial-mesenchymal transition) by upregulating TGF-β signaling. Profiling of gene clusters affected by ZNF507 knockdown revealed that ZNF507 positively regulated the transcription of TGFBR1, MAP3K8, and FURIN, which in turn promoted the progression of PC to highly metastatic and aggressive state. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ZNF507 is a novel key regulator of TGF-β signaling in the progression of malignant PC and could be a promising target for studying the development of advanced metastatic PCs.


Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 637
Author(s):  
Isaac Quiros-Fernandez ◽  
Lucía Figueroa-Protti ◽  
Jorge L. Arias-Arias ◽  
Norman Brenes-Cordero ◽  
Francisco Siles ◽  
...  

In the absence of new therapeutic strategies, chemotherapeutic drugs are the most widely used strategy against metastatic breast cancer, in spite of eliciting multiple adverse effects and having low responses with an average 5-year patient survival rate. Among the new therapeutic targets that are currently in clinical trials, here, we addressed the association between the regulation of the metabolic process of autophagy and the exposure of damage-associated molecular patterns associated (DAMPs) to immunogenic cell death (ICD), which has not been previously studied. After validating an mCHR-GFP tandem LC3 sensor capacity to report dynamic changes of the autophagic metabolic flux in response to external stimuli and demonstrating that both basal autophagy levels and response to diverse autophagy regulators fluctuate among different cell lines, we explored the interaction between autophagy modulators and chemotherapeutic agents in regards of cytotoxicity and ICD using three different breast cancer cell lines. Since these interactions are very complex and variable throughout different cell lines, we designed a perturbation-based model in which we propose specific modes of action of chemotherapeutic agents on the autophagic flux and the corresponding strategies of modulation to enhance the response to chemotherapy. Our results point towards a promising therapeutic potential of the metabolic regulation of autophagy to overcome chemotherapy resistance by eliciting ICD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Agustono Wibowo ◽  
Norizan Ahmat ◽  
Foo Jhi Biau ◽  
Jian Sheng Loh ◽  
Ahmad Sazali Hamzah

Background: Dryobalanops rappa is a Plant species belong to the family of Dipterocarpaceae. Nevertheless, the active compounds present in D. rappa have never been investigated. Objective: The aim of this research is to isolate and characterize compounds from Dryobalanops rappa and to study its bioactivity against human MCF-7 breast cancer and A549 lung cancer cell lines and several bacterial strains. Methods: The isolation step was carried out using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated mainly using NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxic activity of isolated compounds was determined with MTT assay, and the antimicrobial was screened using a modified resazurin microtiter-plate assay. Results: Isolation and purification of methanolic extract of D. rappa stem bark yielded 14 known oligomeric resveratrol types of compounds (1-14). Results showed that isolated ampelopsin E (5) and vaticanol C (14) displayed moderate activity against human MCF-7 breast cancer and A549 lung cancer cell lines with IC50 values 14.3 and 10.7 μg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, acetate derivative of isolated laevifonol (2) and ampelopsin F (3) possess potent activities towards MCF-7 cancer cell line with IC50 values 2.8 and 3.3 μg/mL, respectively, in comparison to the parental compounds that demonstrated weak activities (IC50 > 50 μg/mL). For the antibacterial assay, compounds 10 and 12 showed moderate activities towards Gram-positive bacterial strains (MIC ≤ 50 μM). Conclusion: 14 known oligomeric resveratrol types of compounds have been isolated. The good activity of 14 against A549 cell line, 5 against MCF-7 cell line, and 10 and 12 against Gram-positive bacterial strains were the most promising results from this study. While the strong cytotoxicity of acetate derivative (2 and 3) against MCF-7 cell line has opened up the potential of resveratrol oligomers to be used as a template for designing new anticancer drugs.


Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 4663
Author(s):  
Paula M. Schmidtlein ◽  
Clara Volz ◽  
Rüdiger Braun ◽  
Isabel Thürling ◽  
Olha Lapshyna ◽  
...  

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive and therapy-resistant cancer types which is largely due to tumor heterogeneity, cancer cell de-differentiation, and early metastatic spread. The major molecular subtypes of PDAC are designated classical/epithelial (E) and quasi-mesenchymal (QM) subtypes, with the latter having the worst prognosis. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), are involved in regulating invasion/metastasis and stem cell generation in cancer cells but also early pancreatic endocrine differentiation or de-differentiation of adult pancreatic islet cells in vitro, suggesting that pancreatic ductal exocrine and endocrine cells share common EMT programs. Using a panel of PDAC-derived cell lines classified by epithelial/mesenchymal expression as either E or QM, we compared their trans-differentiation (TD) potential to endocrine progenitor or β cell-like cells since studies with human pancreatic cancer cells for possible future TD therapy in PDAC patients are not available so far. We observed that QM cell lines responded strongly to TD culture using as inducers 5′-aza-2′-deoxycytidine or growth factors/cytokines, while their E counterparts were refractory or showed only a weak response. Moreover, the gain of plasticity was associated with a decrease in proliferative and migratory activities and was directly related to epigenetic changes acquired during selection of a metastatic phenotype as revealed by TD experiments using the paired isogenic COLO 357-L3.6pl model. Our data indicate that a QM phenotype in PDAC coincides with increased plasticity and heightened trans-differentiation potential to activate a pancreatic β cell-specific transcriptional program. We strongly assume that this specific biological feature has potential to be exploited clinically in TD-based therapy to convert metastatic PDAC cells into less malignant or even benign cells.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Suhong Xie ◽  
Lei Zhou ◽  
Xiaoyu Tang ◽  
Xiaolin Guan ◽  
...  

AbstractSerous ovarian cancer (SOC) is the most common women cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among the gynaecological malignancies. Although effective chemotherapeutics combined with surgery are developed for the treatment, the five-year survival rate is unsatisfactory due to chemoresistance. To overcome this shortcoming of chemotherapy, we established taxol and carboplatin resistant SOC cell lines for the understandings of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of chemoresistance. Here, we found that these chemoresistant cell lines showed less viability and proliferation, due to more cells arrested at G0/G1 phase. Glutathione-S-transferases-theta1 (GSTT1) was significantly upregulated in these chemoresistant cells, along with other chemoresistant genes. Meanwhile, GSTT1 expression was also significantly upregulated in the SOC patient tissues after taxol treatment, indicating this upregulation was physiologically relevant to chemotherapy. Further, suppression of GSTT1 expression by shRNA in SOC cell lines led to more sensitivity to drug treatment, through increasing divided cells and promoting cell death. Moreover, the expression of DNA topoisomerase 1 (Topo I) was in synergy with that of GSTT1 in the chemoresistant cells, and GSTT1 can bind to Topo I in vitro, which suggested GSTT1 could function through DNA repair mechanism during chemoresistance. In summary, our data imply that GSTT1 may be a potential biomarker or indicator of drug resistance in serous ovarian cancer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Farhana Taher Sumya ◽  
Irina D. Pokrovskaya ◽  
Vladimir Lupashin

Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) is an octameric protein complex that orchestrates intra-Golgi trafficking of glycosylation enzymes. Over a hundred individuals with 31 different COG mutations have been identified until now. The cellular phenotypes and clinical presentations of COG-CDGs are heterogeneous, and patients primarily represent neurological, skeletal, and hepatic abnormalities. The establishment of a cellular COG disease model will benefit the molecular study of the disease, explaining the detailed sequence of the interplay between the COG complex and the trafficking machinery. Moreover, patient fibroblasts are not a good representative of all the organ systems and cell types that are affected by COG mutations. We developed and characterized cellular models for human COG4 mutations, specifically in RPE1 and HEK293T cell lines. Using a combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and lentiviral transduction technologies, both myc-tagged wild-type and mutant (G516R and R729W) COG4 proteins were expressed under the endogenous COG4 promoter. Constructed isogenic cell lines were comprehensively characterized using biochemical, microscopy (superresolution and electron), and proteomics approaches. The analysis revealed similar stability and localization of COG complex subunits, wild-type cell growth, and normal Golgi morphology in all three cell lines. Importantly, COG4-G516R cells demonstrated increased HPA-647 binding to the plasma membrane glycoconjugates, while COG4-R729W cells revealed high GNL-647 binding, indicating specific defects in O- and N-glycosylation. Both mutant cell lines express an elevated level of heparin sulfate proteoglycans. Moreover, a quantitative mass-spectrometry analysis of proteins secreted by COG-deficient cell lines revealed abnormal secretion of SIL1 and ERGIC-53 proteins by COG4-G516R cells. Interestingly, the clinical phenotype of patients with congenital mutations in the SIL1 gene (Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome) overlaps with the phenotype of COG4-G516R patients (Saul-Wilson syndrome). Our work is the first compressive study involving the creation of different COG mutations in different cell lines other than the patient’s fibroblast. It may help to address the underlying cause of the phenotypic defects leading to the discovery of a proper treatment guideline for COG-CDGs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guo-Dong Han ◽  
Yuan Sun ◽  
Hong-Xia Hui ◽  
Ming-Yue Tao ◽  
Yang-Qing Liu ◽  
...  

ObjectiveMiR-1224 has been reported to exhibit abnormal expression in several tumors. However, the expressing pattern and roles of miR-1224 in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. Our current research aimed to explore the potential involvement of miR-1224 in the GC progression.Materials and MethodsThe expression of miR-1224 was examined in tissue samples of 128 GC patients and cell lines by RT-PCR. Besides, the associations of miR-1224 expressions with clinicopathologic features and prognosis of GC patients were analyzed. Then, the possible influences of miR-1224 on cell proliferation and cell migration were determined. Afterward, the molecular target of miR-1224 was identified using bioinformatics assays and confirmed experimentally. Finally, RT-PCR and Western blot assays were performed to investigate the effect of the abnormal miR-1224 expression on the EMT and Wnt/β-catenin pathway.ResultsmiR-1224 was lowly expressed in the GC specimens and cell lines due to T classification and TNM stage. Survival assays demonstrated that GC patients with low expressions of miR-1224 possessed poor overall survivals. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that the overexpression of miR-1224 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in GC cells. SATB homeobox 1 (SATB1) was verified as a direct target of miR-1224 in GC. Furthermore, β-catenin and c-myc were significantly inhibited in miR-1224-overexpression cells.ConclusionsOur findings highlight the potential of miR-1224 as a therapeutic target and novel biomarker for GC patients


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