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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Glyn Atwal ◽  
Douglas Bryson

Purpose The conceptualization of the Base of Pyramid (BOP) proposes that low-income markets can lead to profitable opportunities for businesses. The purpose of this study is to identify key success factors of a BOP business strategy based on a case study of the discount retailer, Dollar General, in the USA. Design/methodology/approach The research design used in this research is an in-depth case study of Dollar General in the USA. Qualitative methods are applied in both the primary and secondary data collection and during the follow-on data analysis of Dollar General. Findings Dollar General’s strategic profile is achieved through the combination of the following four actions which are tailored to compete effectively at the BOP in the USA: creating the neighborhood discounter, raising aspirational appeal, reducing service and eliminating internationalization. Research limitations/implications The case is specific to Dollar General in a US cultural context. Practical implications The case of Dollar General demonstrates how a discounter retailer should not only follow a low-cost strategy to compete at the BOP. Its ability to craft a distinctive strategy is coherent with meeting the logistical, rational and emotional needs of the low-income consumer in the USA. Social implications Many businesses have neglected rural areas of the USA as being unprofitable. The ability for businesses such as Dollar General to serve the BOP segment can foster the socio-economic well-being of communities. Originality/value The overwhelming body of the BOP literature is based on emerging markets. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the few studies to investigate BOP business strategy in the USA.


2021 ◽  
Vol 78 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
Stephanie R. Patton ◽  
Matthew B. Russell ◽  
Marcella A. Windmuller-Campione ◽  
Lee E. Frelich

2021 ◽  
pp. tobaccocontrol-2021-056720
Author(s):  
Jessica Liu ◽  
Coralia Vázquez-Otero ◽  
Micah L Berman ◽  
Elise M Stevens

PurposeYouth electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use remains high in the USA, and advertising is a contributor. The purpose of this study was to identify themes and characteristics of popular e-cigarette companies’ advertising after e-cigarette companies became more highly scrutinised in 2018.MethodsUsing a systematic, quantitative content analysis, three trained coders coded e-cigarette advertisements from JUUL, Puff Bar, Vuse and Blu from 2019 and 2020. Based on previous work, they coded for: type of advertisement, flavours, promotions, product cues, descriptors, claims, imagery, youth-oriented themes and sensational appeals.ResultsOf the 401 e-cigarette advertisements, the majority were emails (38.2%) and Instagram posts (30.9%). Over half (53.6%) showed flavours other than tobacco, with Puff Bar leading the brands (70.2%; p<0.001). The most frequently used product cues were showing the product (51.4%) or packaging (42.4%). The most common claim was being an alternative to smoking (14.2%). The most frequently used imagery was fruit (14.0%), employed most by Puff Bar (p<0.001). The only youth-oriented theme present was humour (4.2%). Positive sensations (eg, good taste, good smell or satisfying; 17.1%) was the most common form of appeal, with Puff Bar using it at the highest frequency (p<0.001).ConclusionEven with heightened scrutiny of e-cigarette brands, advertisements still included youth-appealing content such as flavours, fruit imagery and positive sensations. Puff Bar led in all these categories, and it rapidly gained market share after market leader JUUL limited the sales of its flavoured products. Research should continue to monitor the characteristics of e-cigarette advertisements and consider their impact on youth.


2021 ◽  
Vol 131 ◽  
pp. 108241
Author(s):  
Muhammad Jawad Sajid ◽  
Ernesto D.R. Santibanez Gonzalez ◽  
Danish
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Pablo D. Jimenez Castro ◽  
Abhinaya Venkatesan ◽  
Elizabeth Redman ◽  
Rebecca Chen ◽  
Abigail Malatesta ◽  
...  

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3657
Author(s):  
Sara R. Jaeger ◽  
Sok L. Chheang ◽  
John Prescott

The negative impact of food neophobia (FN) on food and beverage (F&B) liking extends beyond foods and beverages that are novel. In addition, F&Bs that are high in flavour intensity, perceived as dangerous, or have connections to other cultures are likely to elicit rejection by those high in FN. Each of these factors have been established as producing increased arousal, potentially to an unpleasant degree. The aim of this study was to explore the hypothesis that increased arousal underlies all causes of rejection due to FN. To do this, we analysed and interpreted existing data based on online surveys that measured FN and liking for a broad range of F&B names from 8906 adult consumers in the USA, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany and Denmark. Negative associations between FN and liking of varying strengths were evident for 90% of the F&Bs. Consistent with the arousal hypothesis, F&Bs (a) with high flavour intensity, whether produced by chilli, other spices, or flavours, (b) from other cultures, (c) often perceived as dangerous, or (d) that were novel or had novel ingredients showed the strongest negative relationships between FN and liking. Conversely, F&Bs whose liking scores were only very weakly related to FN had low arousal characteristics: high familiarity, sweetness, mild flavours, strong connections to national food cultures, or some combination of these factors. Since this study was exploratory and conducted on existing data, there was no direct measure of arousal, but this is recommended for future, stronger tests of this arousal hypothesis.


2021 ◽  
pp. tobaccocontrol-2021-056819
Author(s):  
Carla J Berg ◽  
Katelyn F Romm ◽  
Yael Bar-Zeev ◽  
Lorien C Abroms ◽  
Katharina Klinkhammer ◽  
...  

IntroductionGiven that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorised reduced exposure messaging to be used in IQOS marketing, we examined: (1) IQOS ad content; (2) advertising media channels and (3) changes in advertising efforts over time.MethodsWe conducted a mixed-methods study regarding IQOS ad content (headlines, themes, images), ad occurrence characteristics (including content, media channels and adspend) in the USA from August 2019 to April 2021 using Numerator advertising/marketing data.ResultsAcross 24 unique ads and 591 occurrences (84.6% online, 8.0% print, 7.4% mobile), there was $4 902 110 total adspend (98.9% allocated to print). Across unique ads, occurrences and adspend, prominent themes included ‘real tobacco’ (45.8%, 47.4%, 30.1%, respectively), less odour/ash (29.2%, 21.0%, 29.9%) and switching from cigarettes (25.0%, 19.5%, 69.4%), and images mainly featured the product alone (58.2%, 61.4%, 99.5%) or with women (25.0%, 19.1%, 0.3%). Per occurrences and adspend, the most prominent media channel themes (eg, magazine/website topics) were technology (19.3%, 10.6%), women’s fashion (18.1%, 26.2%), weather/news (9.0%, 15.3%) and entertainment/pop culture/gaming (8.5%, 23.1%). Ad themes appearing only post-FDA authorisation included switching from traditional cigarettes, same-day/home-delivery, convenience (eg, use indoors), reduced exposure to some dangerous substances, science/research and distinction from e-cigarettes. Overall adspend per occurrence increased postauthorisation (p=0.016); the highest adspend per unique ad (69.3% of total) focused on ads featuring reduced exposure.ConclusionsRegulatory efforts must be informed by ongoing surveillance of IQOS marketing efforts and its impacts, particularly how specific consumer subgroups (eg, tobacco non-users, women, young people) are impacted by marketing exposure.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Genghmun Eng

Over the course of the CoVID-19 pandemic, we utilized widely-available real-time data to create models for predicting its spread, and to estimate the time evolution for each of the USA CoVID-19 waves. Our recent medrxiv.org preprint (10.1101_2021.08.16.21262150) examined the USA Summer 2021 resurgence, from ~6/7/2021 up through ~8/15/2021 (Stage 1). Our preprint covering this period showed that CoVID-19 could infect virtually all susceptible non-vaccinated persons, who were practicing minimal Social Distancing and NO Mask-Wearing. The most recent USA Summer 2021 resurgence data, from ~8/13/2021 up through 10/7/2021 (Stage 2), shows a significant "flattening of the curve". Since no new government mandates were involved, our interpretation is that some vaccine-hesitant people have now elected to become vaccinated. The Social Distancing parameter in our model showed a ~6.67X increase between Stage 1 and Stage 2, indicating that this parameter also can serve as an indicator of vaccination rates. The other parameter in our model, which is associated with Mask-Wearing, increased from zero to a finite but relatively small value. Using the 10/7/2021 USA CoVID-19 overall mortality rate of ~1.60942% gives these updated predictions for the total number of USA CoVID-19 cases and deaths: N(Total by 3/21/2022)~ 52,188,000; N(Deaths by 3/21/2022)~ 839,900 ; N(Total by 3/21/2024)~ 52,787,000; N(Deaths by 3/21/2024)~ 849,600 ; assuming no new 2021 Winter Resurgence occurs (with 3 Figures).


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