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2021 ◽  
Neha Awasthi ◽  
Monika Chaudhary

Abstract Universal Health Coverage, as a milestone of Sustainable Development Goal − 3 has its own predefined limitations for a resource constraint economy. Underdeveloped and developing nations are not in a position to provide critical and crucial health services to all its citizens and those who remain uncovered are likely to face financial hardships. Division of limited resources is never easy andchoosing which services to offer and to whom in order to benefit the weaker sections becomes a complex choice. This study examines, that despite the availability of health systems and insurance schemes, does a vulnerable sections of the societyremains unprotected against Catastrophic Health Expenditure. Is catastrophic health expenditure leading to impoverishment in urban poor of Jaipur city? Primary data was collected from 426 households of urban slums of Jaipur City. It was found that of all the households, 8.1 percent households incurred Catastrophic Health Expenditure. The mean excess of expenditure over the defined threshold (i.e. 40 percent of non-subsistence household expenditure) was 33 percent for households which incurred Catastrophic Health Expenditure. There was a significant association between increased health expenditure and curtailment in expenditure on food and clothing by households, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively. There was a significant rise in impoverishment in urban slums because of out of pocket expenditures on health. There was an absolute 1 percent rise (2.8 percent to 3.8 percent) in poverty on the basis of National Poverty Line and 2.6 percent (37.1 percent to 39.7 percent) when International Poverty Line estimates were taken. Increase in normalized mean positive poverty gap from 29.8 percent to 45.3 percent, indicates the deepening of poverty among existing poor. The result indicates massive discrepancy in estimates of poverty 2.8 percent on National poverty standards and 37.1 percent on International poverty standards. Poverty ratio, as low as 2.8 percent among urban slum (the acknowledged poorer section) based on National Poverty Line indicates need of developing a sensitive poverty standards. Urban slum dwellers of Jaipur are forced to spend more on day-to-day household items because of higher cost of living of the city. This led to an underestimation of the number of poor on National poverty line basis. Lack of considerations of regional variables and factors while designing health schemes is evident. This raises an argument in favor of recognizing local factors while designing the social insurance schemes. Evidence based selection of healthcare delivery system - assurance, insurance or mixed is required. The approach must enable the Government to control quality and cost of the healthcare at the same time. In the present scenario, assurance (healthcare services by Public Healthcare Facilities) approach may not only improve the accessibility but also will control the cost of healthcare for the entire population. In place of putting two parallel systems insurance or assurance, the Government should focus to invest funds and efforts in one system. To strengthen the assurance of public health care ‘Right based approach to Health’ may be adopted.This will result in long term protection of its citizens.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Abdul Rahem ◽  
Mustofa Helmi Effendi ◽  
Hayyun Durrotul Faridah

Background: Since the issuance of Law 33 in 2014 concerning Guaranteed Halal Products, the government has an obligation to remind all parties that the law should be carried out properly in regards to the halal certification of medicine. Aim: This study aims to determine the attitude of pharmacists towards halal medicine and their readiness to produce it, as well as the relationship between their attitude and readiness. Methods: This study had a cross-sectional observational design, the research variable was the attitude and readiness of pharmacists to produce halal drugs. The sample used was 206 pharmacists who were carrying out professional practice in the pharmaceutical industry in East Java. The instrument used was a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The results showed that 51.54% of respondents agreed with halal certification on medicines and 58.74% of pharmacists were ready to produce halal medicine. Conclusion: The majority of pharmacists were in support of producing certified halal medicine. The attitude of these pharmacists was also related to their readiness to produce halal medicine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (8) ◽  
pp. 418-418
Paul Baldwin

We are constantly advised that intuition is a poor substitute for facts. While data and facts are not always synonymous, most people will doubtlessly agree that data are generally more useful and persuasive than opinion. Finding the data we need can be confusing and frustrating, but no entity possesses and publishes more data than the US federal government. Some of these data are more accessible than others, but if inquisitors are persistent and creative, then they can uncover a trove of information that can improve insights and increase contributions to organizations.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Ruby Y. S. Lai

The #MeToo movement in Hong Kong emerged in late 2017, subsequently converged with the Anti-Extradition Law protest in 2019, and evolved into the #ProtestToo campaign against police violence and sexual assult. This essay traces the development of the #MeToo movement and analyzes the collaboration among the government, civil society, and the media in fostering the movement to combat sexual violence. It argues that whether the collaborative model succeeds or fails depends upon sociocultural and political circumstances: the failure of existing measures in preventing, investigating, and prosecuting the alleged sexual assaults inflicted on protesters in 2019 reveals how a shift to authoritarian governance may cripple the established anti–sexual violence collaboration.

2021 ◽  
pp. 118-127
Rosalinna Rosalinna

Background: Pandemic COVID-19 has prompted the government to implement a social distancing policy. This also applies to pregnant mother to come to health workers unless there are signs of pregnancy. This study aims to know the influence of pregnancy services before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is Mixed Method study with the sample was a midwife who carried out the Midwifery Independent Practice or “Praktek Madiri Bidan” (PMB) in Sragen Regency, Central Java Province. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 informants. Statistical test using Paired T test, qualitative data using transcription and categorization Results: The average number of visits to maternity care at PMB was 117.0 (21.83) visits per month in the two months prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, only 67,6 (7,63) monthly visits for two months during COVID 19 pandemic. Obtained ρ value 0,000 which means there is a difference in Pregnancy Care Service Visits before and during the COVID 19 pandemic at PMB Sragen Regency, Central Java. There are two themes in the results of the qualitative study, namely the anxiety of midwives in providing midwifery services during the COVID-19 pandemic and the Protocol for Pregnancy Care Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Conclusions: There are differences in pregnancy services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The government is expected to be able to socialize technical guidelines for pregnant women in accessing services on pregnancy and prevention of COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Zhi-Ting You ◽  
Min Zhong ◽  
Qing Gao ◽  
Hong-Xiang Wei ◽  
Xi-Hao Zeng

This paper uses panel data from inland provinces of China to perform a fixed effect regression and finds that the development of the digital economy has a significant promotional effect on the health of residents. Then, the population ageing rate is further used as a threshold variable for a threshold regression, and the relationship between the development of the digital economy and the health of residents from the perspective of ageing is discussed. The empirical results show that the ageing of the population will reduce the role of the digital economy in promoting residents' health. There is a non-linear single threshold effect between the development of the digital economy and residents' health indicators. In areas of China with a better developed digital economy, when the ageing rate exceeds the threshold, the positive impact of the development of the digital economy on population health has increased compared with the population ageing below the threshold. These asymmetric developments are closely related to economic development, historical and cultural factors, and policies formulated by the government. Therefore, as the digital economy continues to advance, the government should also provide health services fairly and efficiently, and formulate effective Internet assistance policies for the elderly so that the development of the digital economy can more comprehensively promote the health of residents of all ages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Min Qi ◽  
Junshu Wang

This paper builds an intelligent E-Government platform based on the Internet of Things. It adopts a three-layer architecture model, including the government collection layer, the government network layer, and the government application layer. By making full use of data technology and information technology, government services can be realized in real-time perception, efficient operation, scientific decision-making, active service, and intelligent supervision and can be open and collaborative, so as to provide the public with better quality and more efficient and more responsive government services. In addition, this paper has realized optimization in the aspects of government service mode, Internet of Things application mode, and database structure. Through the use of big data technology, the government service information will be digitized and integrated, and through the data sharing and exchange platform, the government information resources will be intercommunicated and shared across departments, levels, and regions. The application mode has been upgraded. Compared with the traditional E-Government, the government has made a qualitative leap in the degree of automation of control, the intelligence of service and decision, the remote support ability, and the space-time scope that government can control. The distributed management mode of the SQL Server is adopted to realize the exchange of requested data and process the data content, which can greatly improve the working efficiency of the system. Finally, through testing, the government affairs management system has good stability; there is no congestion and delay when multiple users access the system, so the response speed and efficiency of the system basically meet the requirements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 77 (4) ◽  
Ridwan Ridwan ◽  
Muhammad Fuad Zain

The fasting and Eid al-Fitr celebration has a strong public dimension for their traditional characteristics in Islamic communal celebrations. This study used field research from interviews with the two largest mass organisations in Indonesia, Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and Muhammadiyah, and the statements of mass media. This research shows that contestation of religious symbols is not something that needs to be debated but it should broaden the understanding of the differences that must be respected in order to build brotherhood not, division. Contestation of religious symbols between the hisab [astronomical calculations] and the ru’yat[sighting a new crescent moon] is a competition between religious organisations, to strengthen their position, social legitimacy and religious authority in the public sphere. The government has to take the initiative to compromise the policy between the two Islamic organisations to reach a methodological agreement in order to minimise social tensions.Contribution: This article proposed that understanding the ru’yat and hisab as a symbol of contestation becomes an attribute of religious organisations and part of organisational behaviour and culture.

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