therapy development
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Sibylle Jablonka ◽  
Luisa Hennlein ◽  
Michael Sendtner

Abstract Background Major efforts have been made in the last decade to develop and improve therapies for proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). The introduction of Nusinersen/Spinraza™ as an antisense oligonucleotide therapy, Onasemnogene abeparvovec/Zolgensma™ as an AAV9-based gene therapy and Risdiplam/Evrysdi™ as a small molecule modifier of pre-mRNA splicing have set new standards for interference with neurodegeneration. Main body Therapies for SMA are designed to interfere with the cellular basis of the disease by modifying pre-mRNA splicing and enhancing expression of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, which is only expressed at low levels in this disorder. The corresponding strategies also can be applied to other disease mechanisms caused by loss of function or toxic gain of function mutations. The development of therapies for SMA was based on the use of cell culture systems and mouse models, as well as innovative clinical trials that included readouts that had originally been introduced and optimized in preclinical studies. This is summarized in the first part of this review. The second part discusses current developments and perspectives for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophies, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, as well as the obstacles that need to be overcome to introduce RNA-based therapies and gene therapies for these disorders. Conclusion RNA-based therapies offer chances for therapy development of complex neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophies, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The experiences made with these new drugs for SMA, and also the experiences in AAV gene therapies could help to broaden the spectrum of current approaches to interfere with pathophysiological mechanisms in neurodegeneration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Soumyaparna Das ◽  
Valerie Popp ◽  
Michael Power ◽  
Kathrin Groeneveld ◽  
Jie Yan ◽  

AbstractHereditary degeneration of photoreceptors has been linked to over-activation of Ca2+-permeable channels, excessive Ca2+-influx, and downstream activation of Ca2+-dependent calpain-type proteases. Unfortunately, after more than 20 years of pertinent research, unequivocal evidence proving significant and reproducible photoreceptor protection with Ca2+-channel blockers is still lacking. Here, we show that both D- and L-cis enantiomers of the anti-hypertensive drug diltiazem were very effective at blocking photoreceptor Ca2+-influx, most probably by blocking the pore of Ca2+-permeable channels. Yet, unexpectedly, this block neither reduced the activity of calpain-type proteases, nor did it result in photoreceptor protection. Remarkably, application of the L-cis enantiomer of diltiazem even led to a strong increase in photoreceptor cell death. These findings shed doubt on the previously proposed links between Ca2+ and retinal degeneration and are highly relevant for future therapy development as they may serve to refocus research efforts towards alternative, Ca2+-independent degenerative mechanisms.

2021 ◽  
Sabrina Paganoni ◽  
James D. Berry ◽  
Melanie Quintana ◽  
Eric Macklin ◽  
Benjamin R. Saville ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 1326
Weronika Kotkowiak ◽  
Zofia Jahnz-Wechmann ◽  
Anna Pasternak

Aptamers constitute an answer for the growing need for targeted therapy development. One of the most well-known representatives of this group of compounds is thrombin binding aptamers (TBA) targeted towards thrombin. The TBA inhibitory activity is determined by its spatial arrangement, which consists of two G-tetrads linked by two shorter TT loops and one longer TGT loop and folds into a unimolecular, antiparallel G-quadruplex structure. Interesting properties of the aptamer can be further improved via the introduction of a number of chemical modifications. Herein, a comprehensive analysis of the influence of pyrrolo-2’-deoxycytidine (Py-dC) and its derivatives on TBA physicochemical and biological properties has been presented. The studies have shown that the presence of modified residues at the T7 position of the TGT loop has only minor effects on TBA thermodynamic stability without affecting its folding topology. All analyzed oligomers exhibit anticoagulant properties, but only aptamer modified with a decyl derivative of Py-dC was able to inhibit thrombin activity more efficiently than unmodified, parental compounds. Importantly, the same compound also possessed the potential to effectively restrain HeLa cell line growth.

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (6) ◽  
pp. 63-70
M. Vorontsova ◽  
T. Karmakova ◽  
A. Pankratov ◽  
A. Kaprin

Introduction 1. Features of Targeted Delivery of Therapeutic Radionuclides 2. Design of Pharmaceuticals for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy (TRT) 2.1. Radionuclides 2.2. Synthesis of Radioconjugates 2.3. Targeting Carriers 4. Subcellular Targeting of Radionuclides 5. TRT Dosimetry Conclusion

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6251
Elisha Hayden ◽  
Holly Holliday ◽  
Rebecca Lehmann ◽  
Aaminah Khan ◽  
Maria Tsoli ◽  

Diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs) are invariably fatal pediatric brain tumours that are inherently resistant to conventional therapy. In recent years our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of DMG tumorigenicity has resulted in the identification of novel targets and the development of a range of potential therapies, with multiple agents now being progressed to clinical translation to test their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we provide an overview of the current therapies aimed at epigenetic and mutational drivers, cellular pathway aberrations and tumor microenvironment mechanisms in DMGs in order to aid therapy development and facilitate a holistic approach to patient treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 1471-1485
Maurizio Chiriva-Internati, ◽  
Lucia Piccotti ◽  
Luca Zammataro ◽  
Michael C Ryan ◽  
Leonardo Mirandola

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