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Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 209
Dusan Ruzic ◽  
Nemanja Djoković ◽  
Tatjana Srdić-Rajić ◽  
Cesar Echeverria ◽  
Katarina Nikolic ◽  

The dysregulation of gene expression is a critical event involved in all steps of tumorigenesis. Aberrant histone and non-histone acetylation modifications of gene expression due to the abnormal activation of histone deacetylases (HDAC) have been reported in hematologic and solid types of cancer. In this sense, the cancer-associated epigenetic alterations are promising targets for anticancer therapy and chemoprevention. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) induce histone hyperacetylation within target proteins, altering cell cycle and proliferation, cell differentiation, and the regulation of cell death programs. Over the last three decades, an increasing number of synthetic and naturally derived compounds, such as dietary-derived products, have been demonstrated to act as HDACi and have provided biological and molecular insights with regard to the role of HDAC in cancer. The first part of this review is focused on the biological roles of the Zinc-dependent HDAC family in malignant diseases. Accordingly, the small-molecules and natural products such as HDACi are described in terms of cancer therapy and chemoprevention. Furthermore, structural considerations are included to improve the HDACi selectivity and combinatory potential with other specific targeting agents in bifunctional inhibitors and proteolysis targeting chimeras. Additionally, clinical trials that combine HDACi with current therapies are discussed, which may open new avenues in terms of the feasibility of HDACi’s future clinical applications in precision cancer therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Silvia Ferrari ◽  
Maurizio Pesce

Calcification of the aortic valve is one of the most rapidly increasing pathologies in the aging population worldwide. Traditionally associated to cardiovascular risk conditions, this pathology is still relatively unaddressed on a molecular/cellular standpoint and there are no available treatments to retard its progression unless valve substitution. In this review, we will describe some of the most involved inflammatory players, the metabolic changes that may be responsible of epigenetic modifications and the gender-related differences in the onset of the disease. A better understanding of these aspects and their integration into a unique pathophysiology context is relevant to improve current therapies and patients management.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Daibo Li ◽  
Danni Cheng ◽  
Wenjie Yang ◽  
Ting Chen ◽  
Di Zhang ◽  

Bone Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Zuqiang Wang ◽  
Hangang Chen ◽  
Qiaoyan Tan ◽  
Junlan Huang ◽  
Siru Zhou ◽  

AbstractThe intervertebral disc (IVD) is the largest avascular tissue. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play essential roles in regulating cellular adaptation in the IVD under physiological conditions. Disc degeneration disease (DDD) is one of the leading causes of disability, and current therapies are ineffective. This study sought to explore the role of HIFs in DDD pathogenesis in mice. The findings of this study showed that among HIF family members, Hif1α was significantly upregulated in cartilaginous endplate (EP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) tissues from human DDD patients and two mouse models of DDD compared with controls. Conditional deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Vhl in EP and AF tissues of adult mice resulted in upregulated Hif1α expression and age-dependent IVD degeneration. Aberrant Hif1α activation enhanced glycolytic metabolism and suppressed mitochondrial function. On the other hand, genetic ablation of the Hif1α gene delayed DDD pathogenesis in Vhl-deficient mice. Administration of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a selective Hif1α inhibitor, attenuated experimental IVD degeneration in mice. The findings of this study show that aberrant Hif1α activation in EP and AF tissues induces pathological changes in DDD, implying that inhibition of aberrant Hif1α activity is a potential therapeutic strategy for DDD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Ciara Downey ◽  

Alzheimer Disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia, characterized by initial memory impairment and progressive cognitive decline. The exact cause of AD is not yet completely understood. However, the presence of neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is often cited as the main causative agent in AD pathogenesis. In accordance with the amyloid hypothesis, Aβ accumulation initially occurs 15-20 years prior to the development of clinical symptoms. Current therapies focus on the prodromal and preclinical stages of AD due to past treatment failures involving patients with mild to moderate AD. Passive immunization via exogenous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) administration has emerged as a promising anti-Aβ treatment in AD. This is reinforced by the recent approval of the mAb, aducanumab. mAbs have differential selectivity in their epitopes, each recognising different conformations of Aβ. In this way, various Aβ accumulative species can be targeted. mAbs directed against Aβ oligomers, the most neurotoxic species, are producing encouraging clinical results. Through understanding the process by which mAbs target the amyloid cascade, therapeutics could be developed to clear Aβ, prevent its aggregation, or reduce its production. This review examines the clinical efficacy evidence from previous clinical trials with anti-Aβ therapeutics, in particular, the mAbs. Future therapies are expected to involve a combined-targeted approach to the multiple mechanisms of the amyloid cascade in a particular stage or disease phenotype. Additional studies of presymptomatic AD will likely join ongoing prevention trials, in which mAbs will continue to serve as the focal point.

2022 ◽  
Jonaid Ahmad Malik ◽  
Rafia Jan ◽  
Sakeel Ahmed ◽  
Sirajudheen Anwar

Drug repurposing is one of the best strategy for drug discovery. There are several examples where drug repurposing has revolutionized the drug development process, such as metformin developed for diabetes and is now employed in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Drug repurposing against breast cancer is currently a hot topic to look upon. With the continued rise in breast cancer cases, there is a dire need for new therapies that can tackle it in a better way. There is a rise of resistance to current therapies, so drug repurposing might produce some lead candidates that may be promising to treat breast cancer. We will highlight the breast cancer molecular targets, currently available drugs, problems with current therapy, and some examples that might be promising to treat it.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-3
Thais P Pincelli ◽  

Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA) represents a form of scaring alopecia more frequent in postmenopausal women that presents with frontal hairline recession. It is typically classified as a variant of lichen planopilaris. Treatment of FFA can be challenging with poor long-term outcomes. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) consists of an autologous concentration of platelets in a small volume of plasma. Activated platelets secrete cytokines and growth factors and thus may have a potential role in the treatment of inflammatory scarring alopecia such as FFA. A 68-year-old female with multi-resistant FFA was treated with lesional PRP injections every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. Baseline LPPAI score and phototrichograms targeting a representative area of disease activity were compared at baseline and at 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, no significant change in follicular units or follicular density from baseline to week 16 was noted. Only a minimal improvement in inflammatory activity observed clinically and through the Lichen Planopilaris Activity Index was observed. The discordance between the follicular density count and observed inflammatory activity suggests a longer treatment and observational period is needed. Additionally, the frequency of PRP injections potentially may also need to be increased. Given the limited efficacy of current therapies for FFA, PRP injections may be an option in patients with refractory disease, as an adjunct to systemic therapy. Additional investigation is needed to optimize frequency of PRP injections in FFA and to better assess its true anti-inflammatory effect.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 795-799
Paroma Arefin ◽  
Md Shehan Habib ◽  
Mohammad Mostafa ◽  
Dipankar Chakraborty ◽  
reebash Chandra Bhattacharjee ◽  

Fexofenadine HCl is a second-generation antihistamine which is commonly used for allergic disorders. But it has low bioavailability. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCs) and Immunotherapy and Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (ASIT) are now commonly being suggested for the treatment of allergic disorders. Despite the fact that current treatment alternatives have been in use for decades, patient quality of life has remained static. The treatment options are not much explored for their respective adverse effects. Therefore, they are in desperate need of research. Fexofenadine HCl is available in the form of a suspension, tablet, or capsule. In our current study, we have explored whether microspheres can be the perfect dosage form of Fexofenadine HCl to treat allergic disorders considering the pharmacokinetics of the drug, available dosage forms options and the probable side effects of the current therapies.

2021 ◽  
Han Yu Huang ◽  
Chen Liu ◽  
Xin Li You ◽  
Xi Li ◽  
Yang chao Sun ◽  

Abstract Background: Ovarian cancer has the highest fatality rate among patients with gynaecological tumours. Current therapies including poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have limitations due to the frequent recurrence of ovarian cancer after treatment and resistance to therapy.Methods: In this study, we used multiple models with different genetic backgrounds to investigate the potential synergism effect and mechanism between the bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitor AZD5153 and the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. The models were two-dimensional (2D) and 3D cell lines, patient-derived organoids (PDO) and patient-derived xenografts (PDX). Results: Cotreatment with Olaparib and AZD5153 exhibited marked synergistic effects, and significantly attenuated cell viability, whereas it increased DNA replication fork instability, chromosomal breakage and apoptosis compared to treatment with either drug alone. Mechanistically, the tumor upregulates PTEN after Olaparib treatment to make its DNA and chromosome more stable and therefore induces Olaparib resistance. AZD5153 can downregulate PTEN to reverse Olaparib resistance and thus increase joint lethal effect with Olaparib.Conclusion: This study reveals that AZD5153 can downregulate PTEN to reverse Olaparib resistance and thus increase joint lethal effect on DNA replication fork instability, chromosomal breakage, and apoptosis with Olaparib.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 254
Michela Cortesi ◽  
Michele Zanoni ◽  
Francesca Pirini ◽  
Maria Maddalena Tumedei ◽  
Sara Ravaioli ◽  

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the most dismal prognoses of all cancers due to its late manifestation and resistance to current therapies. Accumulating evidence has suggested that the malignant behavior of this cancer is mainly influenced by the associated strongly immunosuppressive, desmoplastic microenvironment and by the relatively low mutational burden. PDAC develops and progresses through a multi-step process. Early in tumorigenesis, cancer cells must evade the effects of cellular senescence, which slows proliferation and promotes the immune-mediated elimination of pre-malignant cells. The role of senescence as a tumor suppressor has been well-established; however, recent evidence has revealed novel pro-tumorigenic paracrine functions of senescent cells towards their microenvironment. Understanding the interactions between tumors and their microenvironment is a growing research field, with evidence having been provided that non-tumoral cells composing the tumor microenvironment (TME) influence tumor proliferation, metabolism, cell death, and therapeutic resistance. Simultaneously, cancer cells shape a tumor-supportive and immunosuppressive environment, influencing both non-tumoral neighboring and distant cells. The overall intention of this review is to provide an overview of the interplay that occurs between senescent and non-senescent cell types and to describe how such interplay may have an impact on PDAC progression. Specifically, the effects and the molecular changes occurring in non-cancerous cells during senescence, and how these may contribute to a tumor-permissive microenvironment, will be discussed. Finally, senescence targeting strategies will be briefly introduced, highlighting their potential in the treatment of PDAC.

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