Alzheimer’S Disease
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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Jessica Robin ◽  
Mengdan Xu ◽  
Liam D. Kaufman ◽  
William Simpson

Detecting early signs of cognitive decline is crucial for early detection and treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Most of the current screening tools for Alzheimer's Disease represent a significant burden, requiring invasive procedures, or intensive and costly clinical testing. Recent findings have highlighted changes to speech and language patterns that occur in Alzheimer's Disease, and may be detectable prior to diagnosis. Automated tools to assess speech have been developed that can be used on a smartphone or tablet, from one's home, in under 10 min. In this study, we present the results of a study of older adults who completed a digital speech assessment task over a 6-month period. Participants were grouped according to those who scored above (N = 18) or below (N = 18) the recommended threshold for detecting cognitive impairment on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and those with diagnoses of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or early Alzheimer's Disease (AD) (N = 14). Older adults who scored above the MoCA threshold had better performance on speech composites reflecting language coherence, information richness, syntactic complexity, and word finding abilities. Those with MCI and AD showed more rapid decline in the coherence of language from baseline to 6-month follow-up, suggesting that this score may be useful both for detecting cognitive decline and monitoring change over time. This study demonstrates that automated speech assessments have potential as sensitive tools to detect early signs of cognitive impairment and monitor progression over time.

2021 ◽  
Pengcheng Xia ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Xiaohui Bai ◽  
Ming Li ◽  
Le Wang ◽  

Abstract Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely related to aging, showing an increasing incidence rate for years. As one of the main organs involved in AD, hippocampus has been extensively studied due to its association with many human diseases. However, little knowledge is known on its association with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD).Material and Methods. The microarray data of hippocampus on AD were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to construct the co-expression network by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). The gene network modules associated with AD screened with the common genes were further annotated based on Gene Ontology (GO) database and enriched based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on STRING database to identify the hub genes in the network.Results. Genes involved in PCD were identified in the hippocampus of AD patients. Functional analysis revealed that these genes were mainly enriched in ciliary tissue, ciliary assembly, axoneme assembly, ciliary movement, microtubule based process, microtubule based movement, organelle assembly, axoneme dynamin complex, cell projection tissue, and microtubule cytoskeleton tissue. A total of 20 central genes, e.g.,DYNLRB2, ZMYND10, DRC1, DNAH5, WDR16, TTC25, and ARMC4 were identified as hub genes related to PCD in hippocampus of AD patients.Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that AD and PCD have shared metabolic pathways. These common pathways provide novel evidence for further investigation of the pathophysiological mechanism and the hub genes suggest new therapeutic targets for the diagnosis and treatment of AD and PCD.Subjects Bioinformatics, Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Neurology

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Sandra den Hoedt ◽  
Simone M. Crivelli ◽  
Frank P. J. Leijten ◽  
Mario Losen ◽  
Jo A. A. Stevens ◽  

Apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE)4 is a strong risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and aberrant sphingolipid levels have been implicated in AD. We tested the hypothesis that the APOE4 genotype affects brain sphingolipid levels in AD. Seven ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) were quantified by LC-MSMS in hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and plasma of <3 months and >5 months old human APOE3 and APOE4-targeted replacement mice with or without the familial AD (FAD) background of both sexes (145 animals). APOE4 mice had higher Cer(d18:1/24:0) levels in the cortex (1.7-fold, p = 0.002) than APOE3 mice. Mice with AD background showed higher levels of Cer(d18:1/24:1) in the cortex than mice without (1.4-fold, p = 0.003). S1P levels were higher in all three brain regions of older mice than of young mice (1.7-1.8-fold, all p ≤ 0.001). In female mice, S1P levels in hippocampus (r = −0.54 [−0.70, −0.35], p < 0.001) and in cortex correlated with those in plasma (r = −0.53 [−0.71, −0.32], p < 0.001). Ceramide levels were lower in the hippocampus (3.7–10.7-fold, all p < 0.001), but higher in the cortex (2.3–12.8-fold, p < 0.001) of female than male mice. In cerebellum and plasma, sex effects on individual ceramides depended on acyl chain length (9.5-fold lower to 11.5-fold higher, p ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, sex is a stronger determinant of brain ceramide levels in mice than APOE genotype, AD background, or age. Whether these differences impact AD neuropathology in men and women remains to be investigated.

Yihan Li ◽  
Simon M. Laws ◽  
Luke A. Miles ◽  
James S. Wiley ◽  
Xin Huang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Francesca Malerba ◽  
Ivan Arisi ◽  
Rita Florio ◽  
Chiara Zecca ◽  
Maria Teresa Dell'Abate ◽  

The discovery of new biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is essential for an accurate diagnosis, to conceive new strategies of treatments, and for monitoring the efficacy of potential disease-modifying therapies in clinical trials. proNGF levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) represent a promising diagnostic biomarker for AD, but its validation was hampered by the absence of a reliable immunoassay. In the literature, proNGF is currently measured in postmortem brain tissue by semiquantitative immunoblot. Here we describe the development and validation of a new method to measure proNGF in the CSF of living patients. This method, based on molecular size separation by capillary electrophoresis, is automated and shows a 40-fold increase in sensitivity with respect to the proNGF immunoblot, largely used in literature, and is robust, specific, and scalable to high-throughput. We have measured proNGF in the cerebrospinal fluid of 84 living patients with AD, 13 controls, and 15 subjective memory complaints (SMC) subjects. By comparing the proNGF levels in the three groups, we found a very significant difference between proNGF levels in AD samples compared with both controls and SMC subjects, while no significant difference was found between SMC and controls. Because of the development of this new immunoassay, we are ready to explore the potentiality of proNGF as a new biomarker for AD or subgroups thereof, as well as for other neurodegenerative diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jose Enrique de la Rubia Ortí ◽  
David Fernández ◽  
Félix Platero ◽  
María Pilar García-Pardo

Background: Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in our society, mainly characterized by loss of cognitive function. However, other symptoms such as anxiety and depression have been described in patients. The process is mediated by alterations in the synaptic and extrasynaptic activity of the neurotransmitter glutamate, which are linked to a hypometabolism of glucose as the main source of brain energy. In that respect, Ketogenic diet (KD) has been proposed as a non-pharmacological treatment serving as an alternative energy source to the neurons increasing the fat percentage and reducing the carbohydrates percentage, showing promising results to improve the cognitive symptoms associated with different neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. However, the association of this type of diet with emotional symptoms and the modulation of glutamate neurotransmission systems after this dietary reduction of carbohydrates are unknown.Objective: The aim of this short review is to provide update studies and discuss about the relationship between KD, anxiety, depression, and glutamate activity in AD patients.Discussion: The main results suggest that the KD is an alternative energy source for neurons in AD with positive consequences for the brain at different levels such as epigenetic, metabolic and signaling, and that the substitution of carbohydrates for fats is also associated with emotional symptoms and glutamate activity in AD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Lei Yu ◽  
Zhiguang Huo ◽  
Jingyun Yang ◽  
Helena Palma-Gudiel ◽  
Patricia A. Boyle ◽  

Glycosylation, the process of adding glycans (i.e., sugars) to proteins, is the most abundant post-translational modification. N-glycosylation is the most common form of glycosylation, and the N-glycan moieties play key roles in regulating protein functions and many other biological processes. Thus, identification and quantification of N-glycome (complete repertoire of all N-glycans in a sample) may provide new sources of biomarkers and shed light on health and disease. To date, little is known about the role of altered N-glycome in Alzheimer’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease-related Dementias (AD/ADRD). The current study included 45 older adults who had no cognitive impairment (NCI) at baseline, followed and examined annually, and underwent brain autopsy after death. During about 12-year follow-up, 15 developed mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 15 developed AD, and 15 remained NCI. Relative abundances of N-glycans in serum at 2 time points (baseline and proximate to death, ∼12.3 years apart) and postmortem brain tissue (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were quantified using MALDI-TOF-MS. Regression models were used to test the associations of N-glycans with AD/ADRD phenotypes. We detected 71 serum and 141 brain N-glycans, of which 46 were in common. Most serum N-glycans had mean fold changes less than one between baseline and proximate to death. The cross-tissue N-glycan correlations were weak. Baseline serum N-glycans were more strongly associated with AD/ADRD compared to change in serum N-glycans over time and brain N-glycans. The N-glycan associations were observed in both AD and non-AD neuropathologies. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive glycomic analysis in both blood and brain in relation to AD pathology. Our results suggest that altered N-glycans may serve as mechanistic biomarkers for early diagnosis and progression of AD/ADRD.

Aging ◽  
2021 ◽  
Yanyao Deng ◽  
Hongwei Zhu ◽  
Le Xiao ◽  
Chao Liu ◽  
Ya-Lin Liu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xi Zhou ◽  
Shuyang Hu ◽  
Shuangling Wang ◽  
Yu Pang ◽  
Yulong Lin ◽  

Multi-target intervention and synergistic treatment are critical for the drug development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) due to its complex and multifactional nature. Oxidative stress and amyloid β peptides (Aβ) accumulation have been recognized as therapeutic targets for AD. Herein, with ability to inhibit Aβ aggregation and the broad-spectrum antioxidant properties, the large amino acid mimicking selenium-doped carbon quantum dots (SeCQDs) are presented as novel nanoagents for multi-target therapy of AD. Compared with the precursor, selenocystine, SeCQDs which maintain the intrinsic properties of both selenium and carbon quantum dots (CQDs) possess good biocompatibility and a remarkable ROS-scavenging activity. Moreover, the functionalized α-carboxyl and amino groups on edge of SeCQDs can trigger multivalent interactions with Aβ, leading to the ability of SeCQDs to inhibit Aβ aggregation. In vivo study demonstrated that SeCQDs can significantly ameliorate the Aβ induced memory deficits, reduce Aβ accumulation and inhibit neuron degeneration in AD model rats. The versatility of functionalization and potential ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) make SeCQDs as prospective nanodrugs for treating AD.

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