Abstract Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel, popularly known as jabuticaba, is rich in polyphenols. Phenolic compounds exhibit several biological properties, which reflect on biomarkers such as biochemical parameters. In the present study, we evaluated the plasmatic levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid of Chinese hamsters fed for 45 days with a regular diet or cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with a liquid extract obtained from P. cauliflora fruits residues standardized in ellagic acid and total phenolic compounds. The results showed that the concentrated extract obtained from jabuticaba residues increased the glycemia of animals fed with a regular diet and reduced the plasmatic uric acid levels of animals fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet. Since hyperuricemia is considered to be a significant risk factor of metabolic disorders and the principal pathological basis of gout, the liquid extract from P. cauliflora fruits residues would be a promising candidate as a novel hypouricaemic agent for further investigation.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are an essential component of the tumour microenvironment. They represent a heterogeneous group of cells that are under the control of cancer cells and can reversely influence the cancer cell population. They affect the cancer cell differentiation status, and the migration and formation of metastases. This is achieved through the production of the extracellular matrix and numerous bioactive factors. IL-6 seems to play the central role in the communication of noncancerous and cancer cells in the tumour. This review outlines the role of exosomes in cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts. Available data on the exosomal cargo, which can significantly intensify interactions in the tumour, are summarised. The role of exosomes as mediators of the dialogue between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts is discussed together with their therapeutic relevance. The functional unity of the paracrine- and exosome-mediated communication of cancer cells with the tumour microenvironment represented by CAFs is worthy of attention.
4-hydroxy-2,3-trans-nonenal (C9H16O2), also known as 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal (C9H16O2; HNE) is an α,β-unsaturated hydroxyalkenal. HNE is a major aldehyde, formed in the peroxidation process of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFAs), such as linoleic and arachidonic acid. HNE is not only harmful but also beneficial. In the 1980s, the HNE was regarded as a “toxic product of lipid peroxidation” and the “second toxic messenger of free radicals”. However, already at the beginning of the 21st century, HNE was perceived as a reliable marker of oxidative stress, growth modulating factor and signaling molecule. Many literature data also indicate that an elevated level of HNE in blood plasma and cells of the animal and human body is observed in the course of many diseases, including cancer. On the other hand, it is currently proven that cancer cells divert to apoptosis if they are exposed to supraphysiological levels of HNE in the cancer microenvironment. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the biological properties of HNE.
Saponins are plant and marine animal specific metabolites that are commonly considered as molecular vectors for chemical defenses against unicellular and pluricellular organisms. Their toxicity is attributed to their membranolytic properties. Modifying the molecular structures of saponins by quantitative and selective chemical reactions is increasingly considered to tune the biological properties of these molecules (i) to prepare congeners with specific activities for biomedical applications and (ii) to afford experimental data related to their structure–activity relationship. In the present study, we focused on the sulfated saponins contained in the viscera of Holothuria scabra, a sea cucumber present in the Indian Ocean and abundantly consumed on the Asian food market. Using mass spectrometry, we first qualitatively and quantitatively assessed the saponin content within the viscera of H. scabra. We detected 26 sulfated saponins presenting 5 different elemental compositions. Microwave activation under alkaline conditions in aqueous solutions was developed and optimized to quantitatively and specifically induce the desulfation of the natural saponins, by a specific loss of H2SO4. By comparing the hemolytic activities of the natural and desulfated extracts, we clearly identified the sulfate function as highly responsible for the saponin toxicity.
We analyzed, for the first time, the major components and biological properties of the venom of Vespa bicolor, a wasp from South China. Using HPLC and SDS-PAGE, combined with LC–MS/MS, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR data to analyze V. bicolor venom (VBV), we found that VBV contains three proteins (hyaluronidase A, phospholipase A1 (two isoforms), and antigen 5 protein) with allergenic activity, two unreported proteins (proteins 5 and 6), and two active substances with large quantities (mastoparan-like peptide 12a (Vb-MLP 12a), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)). In addition, the antimicrobial activity of VBV was determined, and results showed that it had a significant effect against anaerobic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration for Propionibacterium acnes were 12.5 µg/mL. Unsurprisingly, VBV had strong antioxidant activity because of the abundance of 5-HT. Contrary to other Vespa venom, VBV showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, even at low concentrations (1 µg/mL), and we found that Vb-MLP 12a showed pro-inflammatory activity by promoting the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. Cytotoxicity studies showed that VBV had similar antiproliferative effects against all tested tumor cell lines (HepG2, Hela, MCF-7, A549, and SASJ-1), with HepG2 being the most susceptible. Overall, this study on VBV has high clinical importance and promotes the development of Vespa bicolor resources.