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2021 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 100433
Jatin Karthik Tripathy ◽  
Sibi Chakkaravarthy Sethuraman ◽  
Meenalosini Vimal Cruz ◽  
Anupama Namburu ◽  
Mangalraj P. ◽  

Peng Nie ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Lanlin Ding ◽  
Alfonso Sousa-Poza

Background: Although prior research on the housing–health linkage suggested that those with poor housing conditions are more likely to report poor health, it is dominated by Western studies and offers little evidence on the housing–health relation in China. Scarce is empirical evidence on the potentially detrimental impact of either qualitative or quantitative housing poverty on health outcomes, especially for seniors in China. This paper aims to fill this void by using data from the 2011–2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) to provide a comprehensive analysis of the demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors that contribute to changes in healthy aging among Chinese adults aged 60 and over. Methods: Data collected from 8839 adults aged 60 and over in the 2011 and 2015 CHARLS (3732 in 2011 and 5107 in 2015) were used. We first used six blood-based biomarkers to construct a composite measure of the Chinese Healthy Aging Index (CHAI, ranging from 0 (healthiest) to 12 (unhealthiest)) and then assessed the psychometric properties of the CHAI score, including acceptability, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminative validity and precision. In addition, we employed both mean-based Blinder–Oaxaca and unconditional quantile regression decomposition to decompose the change in healthy aging within the 2011–2015 period. Results: We overall identified a decrease in CHAI score from 5.69 in 2011 to 5.20 in 2015, which implies an improvement in healthy aging during this period. Our linear decomposition revealed that dependent on the type of measure used (whether quality, quantity, or combined quality–quantity), housing poverty explained 4–8% of the differences in CHAI score. Our distributional decompositions also highlighted an important role for housing poverty in the change in healthy aging, accounting for approximately 7–23% of the explained portion. Within this latter, the relative contribution of housing quantity and quality poverty was more pronounced at the median and upper end of the CHAI distribution. We also found household expenditure to be significantly associated with healthy aging among older Chinese adults and made the largest contribution to the improvement in healthy aging over time. Conclusions: The association between housing poverty and CHAI is independent of household expenditure. Regardless of type, housing poverty is positively associated with a decrease in healthy aging. Thus, improved housing conditions boost healthy aging, and housing amelioration initiatives may offer the most effective solution for augmenting healthy aging in China. Improvement of flush toilets and the access to potable water and a separate kitchen require particular attention. Since high-density congested housing has a negative impact on healthy aging, more attention can also be paid to improvements in the available space for older people. Especially at an institutional level, the government may extend the housing policy from a homeownership scheme to a housing upgrading scheme by improving housing conditions.

2021 ◽  
Zhe Wang ◽  
Liu Fu ◽  
Junjie Zhang ◽  
Yanli Ge ◽  
Cheng Guo ◽  

Abstract Background: Integrin, beta-like 1 (ITGBL1) is involved in a variety of human malignancies. However, the information on the involvement of ITGBL1 in gastric carcinoma (GC) is limited. Hence, this study aimed to further explore the functions and mechanisms of ITGBL1 in GC. Methods: First, multiple bioinformatics databases, including Oncomine, Timer, UALCAN, and Kaplan–Meier Plotter, were used to predict the expression level and prognostic value of ITGBL1, as well as its association with immune infiltration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in GC. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis were used to to detect the expression of ITGBL1 in both GC tissues and cells. Then, targeted silencing of ITGBL1 in GC cells was further to examine the biological functions of ITGBL1.Results: These databases revealed that ITGBL1 was overexpressed and affected the overall survival in GC. Besides, the expression of ITGBL1 positively correlated with immune-infiltrating cells and EMT-related markers. Subsequently, molecular biology experiments verified these predictions. In GC tissues and cells, ITGBL1 was notably overexpressed. Loss-of-function studies showed that the knockdown of ITGBL1 significantly suppressed migration and invasion but promoted apoptosis in MGC803 GC cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of ITGBL1 resulted in remarkably increased protein expression levels of cadherin 1 (CDH1), while the expression of Vimentin, Snail, and TGF-β1 was downregulated, indicating the initiation and progression of GC caused by ITGBL1 partly via inducing EMT. Conclusion: To sum up, the findings indicated that ITGBL1 acted as a valuable oncogenic factor in GC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chuanlei Xiao ◽  
Huimin Guo ◽  
Jing Tang ◽  
Jiaying Li ◽  
Xuan Yao ◽  

There are more than 100 GDSL lipases in Arabidopsis, but only a few members have been functionally investigated. Moreover, no reports have ever given a comprehensive analysis of GDSLs in stomatal biology. Here, we systematically investigated the expression patterns of 19 putative Guard-cell-enriched GDSL Lipases (GGLs) at various developmental stages and in response to hormone and abiotic stress treatments. Gene expression analyses showed that these GGLs had diverse expression patterns. Fifteen GGLs were highly expressed in guard cells, with seven preferentially in guard cells. Most GGLs were localized in endoplasmic reticulum, and some were also localized in lipid droplets and nucleus. Some closely homologous GGLs exhibited similar expression patterns at various tissues and in response to hormone and abiotic stresses, or similar subcellular localization, suggesting the correlation of expression pattern and biological function, and the functional redundancy of GGLs in plant development and environmental adaptations. Further phenotypic identification of ggl mutants revealed that GGL7, GGL14, GGL22, and GGL26 played unique and redundant roles in stomatal dynamics, stomatal density and morphology, and plant water relation. The present study provides unique resources for functional insights into these GGLs to control stomatal dynamics and development, plant growth, and adaptation to the environment.

Gabriel Luíz Costa ◽  
Maria Eduarda Pereira Mascarenhas ◽  
Thamires Oliveira Gasquez Martin ◽  
Laura Guimarães Fortini ◽  
Jaime Louzada ◽  

Early diagnosis and treatment are fundamental to the control and elimination of malaria. In many endemic areas, routine diagnosis is primarily performed microscopically, although rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide a useful point-of-care tool. Most of the commercially available RDTs detect histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum in the blood of infected individuals. Nonetheless, parasite isolates lacking the pfhrp2 gene are relatively frequent in some endemic regions, thereby hampering the diagnosis of malaria using HRP2-based RDTs. To track the efficacy of RDTs in areas of the Brazilian Amazon, we assessed pfhrp2 deletions in 132 P. falciparum samples collected from four malaria-endemic states in Brazil. Our findings show low to moderate levels of pfhrp2 deletion in different regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Overall, during the period covered by this study (2002-2020), we found that 10% of the P. falciparum isolates were characterized by a pfhrp2 deletion. Notably, however, the presence of pfhrp2-negative isolates has not been translated into a reduction in RDT efficacy, which in part may be explained by the presence of polyclonal infections. A further important finding was the discrepancy in the proportion of pfhrp2 deletions detected using two assessed protocols (conventional PCR versus nested PCR), which reinforces the need to perform a carefully planned laboratory workflow to assess gene deletion. This is the first study to perform a comprehensive analysis of PfHRP2 sequence diversity in Brazilian isolates of P. falciparum. We identified 10 PfHRP2 sequence patterns, which were found to be exclusive of each of the assessed regions. Despite the small number of PfHRP2 sequences available from South America, we found that the PfHRP2 sequences identified in Brazil and neighboring French Guiana show similar sequence patterns. Our findings highlight the importance of continuously monitoring the occurrence and spread of parasites with pfrhp2 deletions, while also taking into account the limitations of PCR-based testing methods associated with accuracy and the complexity of infections.

2021 ◽  
Pascale Varlet ◽  
Eric Bouffet ◽  
Michela Casanova ◽  
Felice Giangaspero ◽  
Manila Antonelli ◽  

BMC Genomics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Guoyao Zhao ◽  
Yuqiang Liu ◽  
Qunhao Niu ◽  
Xu Zheng ◽  
Tianliu Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Genomic regions with a high frequency of runs of homozygosity (ROH) are related to important traits in farm animals. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of ROH and evaluated their association with production traits using the BovineHD (770 K) SNP array in Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Results We detected a total of 116,953 homozygous segments with 2.47Gb across the genome in the studied population. The average number of ROH per individual was 99.03 and the average length was 117.29 Mb. Notably, we detected 42 regions with a frequency of more than 0.2. We obtained 17 candidate genes related to body size, meat quality, and reproductive traits. Furthermore, using Fisher’s exact test, we found 101 regions were associated with production traits by comparing high groups with low groups in terms of production traits. Of those, we identified several significant regions for production traits (P < 0.05) by association analysis, within which candidate genes including ECT2, GABRA4, and GABRB1 have been previously reported for those traits in beef cattle. Conclusions Our study explored ROH patterns and their potential associations with production traits in beef cattle. These results may help to better understand the association between production traits and genome homozygosity and offer valuable insights into managing inbreeding by designing reasonable breeding programs in farm animals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (39) ◽  
pp. e2107953118
Debanjan Barua ◽  
Martina Nagel ◽  
Rudolf Winklbauer

Molecular and structural facets of cell–cell adhesion have been extensively studied in monolayered epithelia. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of cell–cell contacts in a series of multilayered tissues in the Xenopus gastrula model. We show that intercellular contact distances range from 10 to 1,000 nm. The contact width frequencies define tissue-specific contact spectra, and knockdown of adhesion factors modifies these spectra. This allows us to reconstruct the emergence of contact types from complex interactions of the factors. We find that the membrane proteoglycan Syndecan-4 plays a dominant role in all contacts, including narrow C-cadherin–mediated junctions. Glypican-4, hyaluronic acid, paraxial protocadherin, and fibronectin also control contact widths, and unexpectedly, C-cadherin functions in wide contacts. Using lanthanum staining, we identified three morphologically distinct forms of glycocalyx in contacts of the Xenopus gastrula, which are linked to the adhesion factors examined and mediate cell–cell attachment. Our study delineates a systematic approach to examine the varied contributions of adhesion factors individually or in combinations to nondiscrete and seemingly amorphous intercellular contacts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yuki Nishioka ◽  
Kenichi Nagano ◽  
Yoshitaka Koga ◽  
Yasuhiro Okada ◽  
Ichiro Mori ◽  

AbstractAlthough the surface of the human hands contains high antimicrobial activity, studies investigating the precise components involved and the relationship between natural antimicrobial activity and morbidity in infectious diseases are limited. In this study, we developed a method to quantitatively measure the antimicrobial activity of hand surface components. Using a clinical survey, we validated the feasibility of our method and identified antimicrobial factors on the surface of the human hand. In a retrospective observational study, we compared the medical histories of the participants to assess infectious diseases. We found that the antimicrobial activity on the surface of the hands was significantly lower in the high morbidity group (N = 55) than in the low morbidity group (N = 54), indicating a positive association with the history of infection in individuals. A comprehensive analysis of the hand surface components indicated that organic acids, especially lactic acid and antimicrobial peptides, are highly correlated with antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the application of lactic acid using the amount present on the surface of the hand significantly improved the antimicrobial activity. These findings suggest that hand hygiene must be improved to enhance natural antimicrobial activity on the surface of the hands.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Xiuyan Qi ◽  
Huiqian Lin ◽  
Yongge Hou ◽  
Xiaohui Su ◽  
Yanfang Gao

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Cerebral infarction (CI) is one of the leading causes of serious long-term disability and mortality. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> We aimed to identify potential miRNAs and target mRNAs and assess the involvement of immunocyte infiltration in the process of CI. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> First, miRNA and mRNA data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, followed by differential expression analysis. Second, correlation analysis between differentially expressed mRNAs and differential immunocyte subtypes was performed through the CIBERSORT algorithm. Third, the regulatory network between miRNAs and immunocyte subtype-related mRNAs was constructed followed by the functional analysis of these target mRNAs. Fourth, correlation validation between differentially expressed mRNAs and differential immunocyte subtypes was performed in the GSE37587 dataset. Finally, the diagnostic ability of immunocyte subtype-related mRNAs was tested. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Up to 17 differentially expressed miRNAs and 3,267 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified, among which 310 differentially expressed mRNAs were significantly associated with immunocyte subtypes. Several miRNA-target mRNA-immunocyte subtype networks including hsa-miR-671-3p-ZC3HC1-neutrophils, hsa-miR-625-CD5-monocytes, hsa-miR-122-ACOX1/DUSP1/NEDD9-neutrophils, hsa-miR-455-5p-SLC24A4-monocytes, and hsa-miR-455-5p-SORL1-neutrophils were identified. LAT, ACOX1, DUSP1, NEDD9, ZC3HC1, BIN1, AKT1, DNMT1, SLC24A4, and SORL1 had a potential diagnostic value for CI. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The network including miRNA, target mRNA, and immunocyte subtype may be novel regulators and diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CI.

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