molecular mechanisms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 423 ◽  
pp. 127157
Author(s):  
Ping Wu ◽  
Peixin Cui ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Marcelo Eduardo Alves ◽  
Cun Liu ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 293 ◽  
pp. 110709
Author(s):  
Songtao Jiu ◽  
Yan Xu ◽  
Jiyuan Wang ◽  
Muhammad Salman Haider ◽  
Jieming Xu ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
A Losada-García ◽  
SA Cortés-Ramírez ◽  
M Cruz-Burgos ◽  
M Morales-Pacheco ◽  
Carlos D Cruz-Hernández ◽  
...  

Neoplasic transformation is a continuous process that occurs in the body. Even before clinical signs, the immune system is capable of recognizing these aberrant cells and reacting to suppress them. However, transformed cells acquire the ability to evade innate and adaptive immune defenses through the secretion of molecules that inhibit immune effector functions, resulting in tumor progression. Hormones have the ability to modulate the immune system and are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Hormones can control both the innate and adaptive immune systems in men and women. For example androgens reduce immunity through modulating the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Women are more prone than men to suffer from autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and others. This is linked to female hormones modulating the immune system. Patients with autoimmune diseases consistently have an increased risk of cancer, either as a result of underlying immune system dysregulation or as a side effect of pharmaceutical treatments. Epidemiological data on cancer incidence emphasize the link between the immune system and cancer. We outline and illustrate the occurrence of hormone-related cancer and its relationship to the immune system or autoimmune diseases in this review. It is obvious that some observations are contentious and require explanation of molecular mechanisms and validation. As a result, future research should clarify the molecular pathways involved, including any causal relationships, in order to eventually allocate information that will aid in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancer and autoimmune illness.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xianjun Feng ◽  
Jiajun Ma ◽  
Zhiqian Liu ◽  
Xuan Li ◽  
Yinghua Wu ◽  
...  

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites that play important defensive roles in cruciferous plants. Chinese flowering cabbage, one of the most common vegetable crops, is rich in GSLs and thus has the potential to reduce the risk of cancer in humans. Many genes that are involved in GSL biosynthesis and metabolism have been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana; however, few studies investigated the genes related to GSL biosynthesis and metabolism in Chinese flowering cabbage. In the present study, the GSL composition and content in three different organs of Chinese flowering cabbage (leaf, stalk, and flower bud) were determined. Our results showed that the total GSL content in flower buds was significantly higher than in stalks and leaves, and aliphatic GSLs were the most abundant GSL type. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the variations of GSL content, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in GSL biosynthesis and transport in different tissues of Chinese flowering cabbage using RNA sequencing; the expression levels of most genes were found to be consistent with the pattern of total GSL content. Correlation and consistency analysis of differentially expressed genes from different organs with the GSL content revealed that seven genes (Bra029966, Bra012640, Bra016787, Bra011761, Bra006830, Bra011759, and Bra029248) were positively correlated with GSL content. These findings provide a molecular basis for further elucidating GSL biosynthesis and transport in Chinese flowering cabbage.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Haijuan Gu ◽  
Yuejiao Zhong ◽  
Jibin Liu ◽  
Qian Shen ◽  
Rong Wei ◽  
...  

Gastric cancer is a deadly human malignancy and the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathophysiology are very complicated. Thus, further investigations are warranted to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms. With the development of high-throughput screening and bioinformatics, gene expression profiles with large scale have been performed in gastric cancer. In the present study, we mined The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and analyzed the gene expression profiles between gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric tissues. A series of differentially expressed lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs between gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric tissues were identified. Based on the differentially expressed genes, we constructed miRNA-mRNA network, lncRNA-mRNA network and transcriptional factors-mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA network. Furthermore, the Kaplan survival analysis showed that high expression levels of EVX1, GBX2, GCM1, HOXC8, HOXC9, HOXC10, HOXC11, HOXC12 and HOXC13 were all significantly correlated with shorter overall survival of the patients with gastric cancer. On the other hand, low expression level of HOXA13 was associated with shorter overall survival of patients with gastric cancer. Among these hub genes, we performed the in vitro functional studies of HOXC8 in the gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of HOXC8 and overexpression of miR-4256 both significantly repressed the gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration, and miR-4256 repressed the expression of HOXC8 via targeting its 3’ untranslated region in gastric cancer cells. Collectively, our results revealed that a complex interaction networks of differentially expressed genes in gastric cancer, and further functional studies indicated that miR-4256/HOXC8 may be an important axis in regulating gastric cancer progression.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Keiichi Tamai ◽  
Haruna Fujimori ◽  
Mai Mochizuki ◽  
Kennichi Satoh

Cancer tissue consists of heterogenous cell types, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of the tissue which possess therapy resistance, tumor reconstruction capability, and are responsible for metastasis. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is one of the most common type of liver cancer that is highly aggressive with poor prognosis. Since no target therapy is efficient in improving patient outcomes, new therapeutic approaches need to be developed. CSC is thought to be a promising therapeutic target because of its resistance to therapy. Accumulating evidences suggests that there are many factors (surface marker, stemness-related genes, etc.) and mechanisms (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mitochondria activity, etc.) which are linked to CSC-like phenotypes. Nevertheless, limited studies are reported about the application of therapy using these mechanisms, suggesting that more precise understandings are still needed. In this review, we overview the molecular mechanisms which modulate CSC-like phenotypes, and discuss the future perspective for targeting CSC in iCCA.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ilanila Ilangumaran Ponmalar ◽  
Jitendriya Swain ◽  
Jaydeep Kumar Basu

Prevalence of wide spread bacterial infections bring forth a critical need in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the antibiotics as well as the bacterial response to those antibiotics. Improper usage of antibiotics, which can be in sub-lethal concentrations is one among the multiple reasons for acquiring antibiotic resistance which makes it vital to understand the bacterial response towards sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics. In this work, we have used colistin, a well-known membrane active antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and explored the impact of its subminimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on the lipid membrane dynamics and morphological changes of E. coli. Upon investigation of live cell membrane properties such as lipid dynamics using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we observed that colistin disrupts the lipid membrane at sub-MIC by altering the lipid diffusivity. Interestingly, filamentationlike cell elongation was observed upon colistin treatment which led to further exploration of surface morphology with the help of atomic force spectroscopy. The changes in the surface roughness upon colistin treatment provides additional insight on the colistin-membrane interaction corroborating with the altered lipid diffusion. Although altered lipid dynamics could be attributed to an outcome of lipid rearrangement due to direct disruption by antibiotic molecules on the membrane or an indirect consequence of disruptions in lipid biosynthetic pathways, we were able to ascertain that altered bacterial membrane dynamics is due to direct disruptions. Our results provide a broad overview on the consequence of the cyclic polypeptide, colistin on membrane specific lipid dynamics and morphology of a live Gram-negative bacterial cell.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hu Zeng ◽  
Jiahao Huang ◽  
Haowen Zhou ◽  
William J. Meilandt ◽  
Borislav Dejanovic ◽  
...  

Amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles are the neuropathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the spatiotemporal cellular responses and molecular mechanisms underlying AD pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Here we introduce STARmap PLUS to simultaneously map single-cell transcriptional states and disease marker proteins in brain tissues of AD mouse models at subcellular resolution (200 nm). This high-resolution spatial transcriptomics map revealed a core-shell structure where disease-associated microglia (DAM) closely contact amyloid-β plaques, whereas disease-associated astrocytes (DAA) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are enriched in the outer shells surrounding the plaque-DAM complex. Hyperphosphorylated tau emerged mainly in excitatory neurons in the CA1 region accompanied by the infiltration of oligodendrocyte subtypes into the axon bundles of hippocampal alveus. The integrative STARmap PLUS method bridges single-cell gene expression profiles with tissue histopathology at subcellular resolution, providing an unprecedented roadmap to pinpoint the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AD pathology and neurodegeneration.


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