Cancer immunotherapy can boost the immune response of patients to eliminate tumor cells and suppress tumor metastasis and recurrence. However, immunotherapy resistance and the occurrence of severe immune-related adverse effects are clinical challenges that remain to be addressed. The tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Injectable hydrogels have emerged as powerful drug delivery platforms offering good biocompatibility and biodegradability, minimal invasion, convenient synthesis, versatility, high drug-loading capacity, controlled drug release, and low toxicity. In this review, we summarize the application of injectable hydrogels as a unique platform for targeting the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.
Sézary syndrome is an aggressive leukemic variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, characterized by erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and peripheral blood involvement by CD4+ malignant T-cells. The pathogenesis of Sézary syndrome is not fully understood. However, the course of the disease is strongly influenced by the tumor microenvironment, which is altered by a combination of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. The crosstalk between malignant and reactive cells affects the immunologic response against tumor cells causing immune dysregulation. This review focuses on the interaction of malignant Sézary cells and the tumor microenvironment.
Prostate cancer is still a significant global health burden in the coming decade. Novel biomarkers for detection and prognosis are needed to improve the survival of distant and advanced stage prostate cancer patients. The tumor microenvironment is an important driving factor for tumor biological functions. To investigate RNA prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer in the tumor microenvironment, we obtained relevant data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We used the bioinformatics tools Estimation of Stromal and Immune cells in Malignant Tumor tissues using Expression data (ESTIMATE) algorithm and weighted coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to construct tumor microenvironment stromal-immune score-based competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks. Then, the Cox regression model was performed to screen RNAs associated with prostate cancer survival. The differentially expressed gene profile in tumor stroma was significantly enriched in microenvironment functions, like immune response, cancer-related pathways, and cell adhesion-related pathways. Based on these differentially expressed genes, we constructed three ceRNA networks with 152 RNAs associated with the prostate cancer tumor microenvironment. Cox regression analysis screened 31 RNAs as the potential prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer. The most interesting 8 prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer included lncRNA LINC01082, miRNA hsa-miR-133a-3p, and genes TTLL12, PTGDS, GAS6, CYP27A1, PKP3, and ZG16B. In this systematic study for ceRNA networks in the tumor environment, we screened out potential biomarkers to predict prognosis for prostate cancer. Our findings might apply a valuable tool to improve prostate cancer clinical management and the new target for mechanism study and therapy.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), but their benefits are limited to specific patient subsets. Here, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of JX-594 (pexastimogene devacirepvec, Pexa-vec) monotherapy by systemic injection in comparison with sunitinib monotherapy in metastatic orthotopic RCC murine models. Two highly metastatic orthotopic RCC models were developed to compare the treatment efficacy in the International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium favorable-risk and intermediate- or poor-risk groups. JX-594 was systemically injected through the peritoneum, whereas sunitinib was orally administered. Post-treatment, tumor microenvironment (TME) remodeling was determined using immunofluorescence analysis. Systemic JX-594 monotherapy injection demonstrated therapeutic benefit in both early- and advanced-stage mRCC models. Sunitinib monotherapy significantly reduced the primary tumor burden and number of lung metastases in the early-stage, but not in the advanced-stage mRCC model. Systemic JX-594 delivery remodeled the primary TME and lung metastatic sites by increasing tumor-infiltrating CD4/8+ T cells and dendritic cells. Systemic JX-594 monotherapy demonstrated significantly better therapeutic outcomes compared with sunitinib monotherapy in both early- and advanced-stage mRCCs by converting cold tumors into hot tumors. Sunitinib monotherapy effectively suppressed primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in early-stage mRCC.