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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 437
Author(s):  
Valentin Suteau ◽  
John Bukasa-Kakamba ◽  
Beatrice Virjogh-Cenciu ◽  
Antoine Adenis ◽  
Nadia Sabbah ◽  
...  

The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is higher in French Guiana compared to mainland France. These metabolic disorders are associated with an increased risk of cancer. One of the factors involved is hyperinsulinemia that promotes the action of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). The objective of this study is to characterize the expression of GLUT-1 in breast cancers cells in diabetic and obese patients compared to those who are not and to describe the clinical and histological prognostic factors of breast cancer in this population. We conducted a monocentric study including patients with breast cancer diagnosed between 2014 and 2020. Patients were classified into three groups: diabetes, obesity, and control group. The GLUT-1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In total, 199 patients were included in this study. The median age was 53.5 years, and the median tumor size was 2.8 cm. Luminal A was the most frequent molecular type (58.1%), followed by the triple-negative type (19.9%). The breast cancer in our population was characterized by a younger age at diagnosis, more aggressive molecular types, and larger tumor size. Thus, we suggest the advancement of the age of breast cancer screening in this territory. A total of 144 patients (31 diabetes, 22 obese, and 91 control group) were included for the study of GLUT-1 expression. Overexpression of GLUT-1 was observed in 60.4% of cases and in all carcinoma in situ lesions. GLUT-1 overexpression was associated with more aggressive cancers. This overexpression is correlated with high histological grade, high proliferation index, and aggressive molecular types. Our study found no difference in GLUT-1 expression between the diabetic or obese patients and the control group. These results highlight the potential role of GLUT-1 as a tumor metabolic prognostic marker and also as an interesting target therapy, independently of patient metabolic disorder.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 439
Author(s):  
Anetta Sulewska ◽  
Jacek Niklinski ◽  
Radoslaw Charkiewicz ◽  
Piotr Karabowicz ◽  
Przemyslaw Biecek ◽  
...  

LncRNAs have arisen as new players in the world of non-coding RNA. Disrupted expression of these molecules can be tightly linked to the onset, promotion and progression of cancer. The present study estimated the usefulness of 14 lncRNAs (HAGLR, ADAMTS9-AS2, LINC00261, MCM3AP-AS1, TP53TG1, C14orf132, LINC00968, LINC00312, TP73-AS1, LOC344887, LINC00673, SOX2-OT, AFAP1-AS1, LOC730101) for early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The total RNA was isolated from paired fresh-frozen cancerous and noncancerous lung tissue from 92 NSCLC patients diagnosed with either adenocarcinoma (LUAD) or lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). The expression level of lncRNAs was evaluated by a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Based on Ct and delta Ct values, logistic regression and gradient boosting decision tree classifiers were built. The latter is a novel, advanced machine learning algorithm with great potential in medical science. The established predictive models showed that a set of 14 lncRNAs accurately discriminates cancerous from noncancerous lung tissues (AUC value of 0.98 ± 0.01) and NSCLC subtypes (AUC value of 0.84 ± 0.09), although the expression of a few molecules was statistically insignificant (SOX2-OT, AFAP1-AS1 and LOC730101 for tumor vs. normal tissue; and TP53TG1, C14orf132, LINC00968 and LOC730101 for LUAD vs. LUSC). However for subtypes discrimination, the simplified logistic regression model based on the four variables (delta Ct AFAP1-AS1, Ct SOX2-OT, Ct LINC00261, and delta Ct LINC00673) had even stronger diagnostic potential than the original one (AUC value of 0.88 ± 0.07). Our results demonstrate that the 14 lncRNA signature can be an auxiliary tool to endorse and complement the histological diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 438
Author(s):  
Dong Liu ◽  
Zoltan Czigany ◽  
Lara R. Heij ◽  
Stefan A. W. Bouwense ◽  
Ronald van Dam ◽  
...  

The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), an inflammatory parameter, has shown prognostic value in several malignancies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the impact of pretreatment PLR on the oncological outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A systematic literature search has been carried out in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for pertinent papers published between January 2000 and August 2021. Within a random-effects model, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to investigate the relationships among the PLR, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were also conducted to further evaluate the relationship. A total of 20 articles comprising 5429 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled outcomes revealed that a high PLR before treatment is associated with impaired OS (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.06–1.24; p < 0.01) and DFS (HR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.19–2.07; p < 0.01). Subgroup analysis revealed that this association is not influenced by the treatment modality (surgical vs. non-surgical), PLR cut-off values, or sample size of the included studies. An elevated pretreatment PLR is prognostic for the OS and DFS of CCA patients. More high-quality studies are required to investigate the pathophysiological basis of the observation and the prognostic value of the PLR in clinical management as well as for patient selection.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 436
Author(s):  
Luuk J. Schipper ◽  
Kim Monkhorst ◽  
Kris G. Samsom ◽  
Linda J.W. Bosch ◽  
Petur Snaebjornsson ◽  
...  

With more than 70 different histological sarcoma subtypes, accurate classification can be challenging. Although characteristic genetic events can largely facilitate pathological assessment, large-scale molecular profiling generally is not part of regular diagnostic workflows for sarcoma patients. We hypothesized that whole genome sequencing (WGS) optimizes clinical care of sarcoma patients by detection of diagnostic and actionable genomic characteristics, and of underlying hereditary conditions. WGS of tumor and germline DNA was incorporated in the diagnostic work-up of 83 patients with a (presumed) sarcomas in a tertiary referral center. Clinical follow-up data were collected prospectively to assess impact of WGS on clinical decision making. In 12/83 patients (14%), the genomic profile led to revision of cancer diagnosis, with change of treatment plan in eight. All twelve patients had undergone multiple tissue retrieval procedures and immunohistopathological assessments by regional and expert pathologists prior to WGS analysis. Actionable biomarkers with therapeutic potential were identified for 30/83 patients. Pathogenic germline variants were present in seven patients. In conclusion, unbiased genomic characterization with WGS identifies genomic biomarkers with direct clinical implications for sarcoma patients. Given the diagnostic complexity and high unmet need for new treatment opportunities in sarcoma patients, WGS can be an important extension of the diagnostic arsenal of pathologists.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 435
Author(s):  
Arsela Prelaj ◽  
Mattia Boeri ◽  
Alessandro Robuschi ◽  
Roberto Ferrara ◽  
Claudia Proto ◽  
...  

(1) Background: In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) remains the only biomarker for candidate patients to immunotherapy (IO). This study aimed at using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) tools to improve response and efficacy predictions in aNSCLC patients treated with IO. (2) Methods: Real world data and the blood microRNA signature classifier (MSC) were used. Patients were divided into responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to determine if the overall survival of the patients was likely to be shorter or longer than 24 months from baseline IO. (3) Results: One-hundred sixty-four out of 200 patients (i.e., only those ones with PD-L1 data available) were considered in the model, 73 (44.5%) were R and 91 (55.5%) NR. Overall, the best model was the linear regression (RL) and included 5 features. The model predicting R/NR of patients achieved accuracy ACC = 0.756, F1 score F1 = 0.722, and area under the ROC curve AUC = 0.82. LR was also the best-performing model in predicting patients with long survival (24 months OS), achieving ACC = 0.839, F1 = 0.908, and AUC = 0.87. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the integration of multifactorial data provided by ML techniques is a useful tool to select NSCLC patients as candidates for IO.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 434
Author(s):  
Stefan A. Lange ◽  
Holger Reinecke

Cardiovascular disease and cancer remain the leading causes of hospitalization and mortality in high-income countries. Survival after myocardial infarction has improved but there is still a difference in clinical outcome, mortality, and developing heart failure to the disadvantage of women with myocardial infarction. Most major cardiology trials and registries have excluded patients with cancer. As a result, there is only very limited information on the effects of coronary artery disease in cancer patients. In particular, the outcomes in women with cancer and coronary artery disease and its management remain empiric. We reviewed studies of over 27 million patients with coronary artery disease and cancer. Our review focused on the most important types of cancer (breast, colon, lung, prostate) and hematological malignancies with particular attention to sex-specific differences in treatment and prognosis.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 440
Author(s):  
Clara Martori ◽  
Lidia Sanchez-Moral ◽  
Tony Paul ◽  
Juan Carlos Pardo ◽  
Albert Font ◽  
...  

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common malignancy and the fifth cause of cancer death in men. The treatment for localized or locally advanced stages offers a high probability of cure. Even though the therapeutic landscape has significantly improved over the last decade, metastatic PC (mPC) still has a poor prognosis mainly due to the development of therapy resistance. In this context, the use of immunotherapy alone or in combination with other drugs has been explored in recent years. However, T-cell directed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown limited activity with inconclusive results in mPC patients, most likely due to the highly immunosuppressive PC tumor microenvironment (TME). In this scenario, targeting macrophages, a highly abundant immunosuppressive cell type in the TME, could offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve immunotherapy efficacy. In this review, we summarize the growing field of macrophage-directed immunotherapies and discuss how these could be applied in the treatment of mPC, focusing on their combination with ICIs.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 427
Author(s):  
Nadja Meumann ◽  
Christian Schmithals ◽  
Leroy Elenschneider ◽  
Tanja Hansen ◽  
Asha Balakrishnan ◽  
...  

Although therapeutic options are gradually improving, the overall prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still poor. Gene therapy-based strategies are developed to complement the therapeutic armamentarium, both in early and late-stage disease. For efficient delivery of transgenes with antitumor activity, vectors demonstrating preferred tumor tropism are required. Here, we report on the natural tropism of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2 vectors for HCC. When applied intravenously in transgenic HCC mouse models, similar amounts of vectors were detected in the liver and liver tumor tissue. In contrast, transduction efficiency, as indicated by the level of transgene product, was moderate in the liver but was elevated up to 19-fold in mouse tumor tissue. Preferred transduction of HCC compared to hepatocytes was confirmed in precision-cut liver slices from human patient samples. Our mechanistic studies revealed that this preference is due to the improved intracellular processing of AAV2 vectors in HCC, resulting, for example, in nearly 4-fold more AAV vector episomes that serve as templates for gene transcription. Given this background, AAV2 vectors ought to be considered to strengthen current—or develop novel—strategies for treating HCC.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 433
Author(s):  
Ugo Marchese ◽  
Martin Gaillard ◽  
Anna Pellat ◽  
Stylianos Tzedakis ◽  
Einas Abou Ali ◽  
...  

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) are rare tumors with a recent growing incidence. In the 2017 WHO classification, p-NETs are classified into well-differentiated (i.e., p-NETs grade 1 to 3) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (i.e., p-NECs). P-NETs G1 and G2 are often non-functioning tumors, of which the prognosis depends on the metastatic status. In the localized setting, p-NETs should be surgically managed, as no benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy has been demonstrated. Parenchymal sparing resection, including both duodenum and pancreas, are safe procedures in selected patients with reduced endocrine and exocrine long-term dysfunction. When the p-NET is benign or borderline malignant, this surgical option is associated with low rates of severe postoperative morbidity and in-hospital mortality. This narrative review offers comments, tips, and tricks from reviewing the available literature on these different options in order to clarify their indications. We also sum up the overall current data on p-NETs G1 and G2 management.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 429
Author(s):  
Sarah Q. To ◽  
Rhynelle S. Dmello ◽  
Anna K. Richards ◽  
Matthias Ernst ◽  
Ashwini L. Chand

Interleukin (IL)-6 family cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-11, are defined by the shared use of the gp130 receptor for the downstream activation of STAT3 signaling and the activation of genes which contribute to the “hallmarks of cancer”, including proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis. Increased expression of these cytokines, or the ligand-specific receptors IL-6R and IL-11RA, in breast tumors positively correlate to disease progression and poorer patient outcome. In this review, we examine evidence from pre-clinical studies that correlate enhanced IL-6 and IL-11 mediated gp130/STAT3 signaling to the progression of breast cancer. Key processes by which the IL-6 family cytokines contribute to the heterogeneous nature of breast cancer, immune evasion and metastatic potential, are discussed. We examine the latest research into the therapeutic targeting of IL-6 family cytokines that inhibit STAT3 transcriptional activity as a potential breast cancer treatment, including current clinical trials. The importance of the IL-6 family of cytokines in cellular processes that promote the development and progression of breast cancer warrants further understanding of the molecular basis for its actions to help guide the development of future therapeutic targets.


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