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Updated Wednesday, 19 January 2022

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 420
Author(s):  
Paola Vignali ◽  
Agnese Proietti ◽  
Elisabetta Macerola ◽  
Anello Marcello Poma ◽  
Liborio Torregrossa ◽  
...  

Background: Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTPs) were introduced in thyroid pathology in 2016. NIFTPs are a group of follicular neoplasm with an indolent behaviour. In this study, we gathered a large retrospective cohort of NIFTPs and compared those presenting as solitary lesions and NIFTPs found in multifocal setting. Methods: A retrospective search of NIFTPs was performed, and the clinico-pathological features were recorded. For a subgroup of patients, pre-surgical ultrasound (US) evaluation, cytological diagnosis, and molecular analysis were available. Results: We collected 451 NIFTPs; 254 (56.3%) were truly solitary tumours, while 197 coexisted with one or more NIFTP/cancer. Contrasting unifocal and multifocal settings, NIFTPs size was the only significantly different parameter. Preoperatively, NIFTP nodules mostly showed low-risk US characteristics, indeterminate cytology and a RAS-like molecular profile. Conclusion: NIFTPs often coexist with collateral thyroid tumours. However, no clinical-pathological differences can be observed between solitary and “multifocal” NIFTPs. Despite the well-established clinical indolence of NIFTP, a careful monitoring of the contralateral lobe should not be excluded.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 414
Author(s):  
Anita Mahajan ◽  
Helen Shih ◽  
Marta Penas-Prado ◽  
Keith Ligon ◽  
Kenneth Aldape ◽  
...  

Unlike medulloblastoma (MB) in children, robust prospective trials have not taken place for older patients due to the low incidence of MB in adults and adolescent and young adults (AYA). Current MB treatment paradigms for older patients have been extrapolated from the pediatric experience even though questions exist about the applicability of these approaches. Clinical and molecular classification of MB now provides better prognostication and is being incorporated in pediatric therapeutic trials. It has been established that genomic alterations leading to activation of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway occur in approximately 60% of MB in patients over the age of 16 years. Within this cohort, protein patched homolog (PTCH) and smoothened (SMO) mutations are commonly found. Among patients whose tumors harbor the SHH molecular signature, it is estimated that over 80% of patients could respond to SHH pathway inhibitors. Given the advances in the understanding of molecular subgroups and the lack of robust clinical data for adult/AYA MB, the Alliance for Clinical Trial in Oncology group developed the AMBUSH trial: Comprehensive Management of AYA and Adult Patients with Medulloblastoma or Pineal Embryonal Tumors with a Randomized Placebo Controlled Phase II Focusing on Sonic Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition in SHH Subgroup Patients (Adult & Adolescent MedulloBlastoma Using Sonic Hedgehog Trial). This trial will enroll patients 18 years of age or older with MB (any molecular subgroup and risk stratification) or pineal embryonal tumor. Patients will be assigned to one of three cohorts: (1) average risk non-SHH-MB, (2) average risk SHH-MB, and (3) high risk MB or pineal embryonal tumors. All patients will receive protocol-directed comprehensive treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Patients with SHH-MB in cohort 1 will be randomized to a smoothened inhibitor or placebo as maintenance therapy for one year.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 423
Author(s):  
Raphaela Graessle ◽  
Carmen Stromberger ◽  
Max Heiland ◽  
Christian Doll ◽  
Veit M. Hofmann ◽  
...  

Finding a cure may be less important than ensuring the quality of life in elderly patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aim of this study was to determine predictors for adherence. Clinical and pathological data from patients ≥70 years with HNSCC (initial diagnoses 2004-2018) were investigated retrospectively. Evaluated clinical predictors included biological age (Charlson Comorbidity Index; CCI), patient health (Karnofsky Performance Status; KPS) and therapy data. A total of 1125 patients were included. The median age was 75 years, 33.1% reached CCI ≥6, and 53.7% reached KPS ≤ 70%. In total, 968 patients were adherent, whereas 157 were nonadherent. Nonadherent patients were significantly more often smokers (p = 0.003), frequent drinkers (p = 0.001), had a worse health status (p ≤ 0.001) and a lower biological age (p = 0.003), an advanced T classification and lymph node involvement or UICC stage (each p ≤ 0.001). Approximately 88.0% of the included patients received a curative treatment recommendation. A total of 6.9% discontinued the therapy, and 7.0% refused the therapy. With the increasing complexity of a recommended therapy, adherence decreased. The 5-year overall survival was significantly higher in adherent patients (45.1% versus 19.2%). In contrast to the chronological patient age, biological age is a significant predictor for adherence. The evaluated predictors for nonadherence need to be verified prospectively.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 422
Author(s):  
Monika Dudzisz-Sledz ◽  
Paweł Sobczuk ◽  
Katarzyna Kozak ◽  
Tomasz Switaj ◽  
Hanna Kosela-Paterczyk ◽  
...  

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin cancer with a high risk of recurrence and poor prognosis. The treatment of locally advanced disease involves surgery and radiotherapy. To analyze real-life treatment patterns and clinical outcomes, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 161 MCC patients treated with curative intent in four oncological centers in Poland. The median age at diagnosis was 72 years (30–94); 49.7% were male. Lymph node (LN) involvement at diagnosis was found in 26.9% of patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was performed in 36.5% of patients (positive in 10.5%), and 51.9% of patients received perioperative treatment. The relapse rate was 38.3%. With the median follow-up of 2.3 years, the median disease-free survival (DFS) was not reached, and the 1-year rate was 65%. The negative independent risk factors for DFS were male gender, metastases in LN at diagnosis, no SLNB in patients without clinical nodal metastases, and no perioperative radiotherapy. The estimated median overall survival (OS) was 6.9 years (95%CI 4.64–9.15). The negative independent risk factors for OS were male gender, age above 70, metastases in LN at diagnosis, and no SLNB in patients without clinical nodal metastases. Our results confirm that the MCC treatment should be conducted in an experienced multidisciplinary team; however, the outcomes are still unsatisfactory.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 417
Author(s):  
Marlou-Floor Kenkhuis ◽  
Floortje Mols ◽  
Eline H. van Roekel ◽  
José J. L. Breedveld-Peters ◽  
Stéphanie O. Breukink ◽  
...  

Post-treatment adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) lifestyle recommendations were associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fatigue, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. In a prospective cohort among CRC survivors (n = 459), repeated home-visits were performed at 6 weeks, 6, 12, and 24 months post-treatment. Dietary intake, body composition, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity were assessed to construct a lifestyle score based on adherence to seven 2018 WCRF/AICR recommendations. Longitudinal associations of the lifestyle score with HRQoL, fatigue, and CIPN were analysed by confounder-adjusted linear mixed models. A higher lifestyle score was associated with better physical functioning and less activity-related fatigue, but not with CIPN. Adjustment for physical activity substantially attenuated observed associations, indicating its importance in the lifestyle score with regards to HRQoL. In contrast, adjustment for body composition and alcohol inflated observed associations, indicating that both recommendations had a counteractive influence within the lifestyle score. Our findings suggest that CRC survivors benefit from an overall adherence to the WCRF/AICR lifestyle recommendations in terms of HRQoL and fatigue, but not CIPN. Specific recommendations have a varying influence on these associations, complicating the interpretation and requiring further study.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 421
Author(s):  
Lide Alaña ◽  
Caroline E. Nunes-Xavier ◽  
Laura Zaldumbide ◽  
Idoia Martin-Guerrero ◽  
Lorena Mosteiro ◽  
...  

Medulloblastoma is the primary malignant tumor of the Central Nervous System (CNS) most common in pediatrics. We present here, the histological, molecular, and functional analysis of a cohort of 88 pediatric medulloblastoma tumor samples. The WNT-activated subgroup comprised 10% of our cohort, and all WNT-activated patients had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations and were immunostained for nuclear β-catenin. One novel heterozygous CTNNB1 mutation was found, which resulted in the deletion of β-catenin Ser37 residue (ΔS37). The ΔS37 β-catenin variant ectopically expressed in U2OS human osteosarcoma cells displayed higher protein expression levels than wild-type β-catenin, and functional analysis disclosed gain-of-function properties in terms of elevated TCF/LEF transcriptional activity in cells. Our results suggest that the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of ΔS37 β-catenin contributed to early medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 406
Author(s):  
Quang Loc Bui ◽  
Léo Mas ◽  
Antoine Hollebecque ◽  
David Tougeron ◽  
Christelle de la Fouchardière ◽  
...  

Background: Several studies reported improved outcomes with conventional treatments (CT, i.e., chemotherapy ± targeted therapy) administered after immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICI) in certain tumor types. No data are available concerning patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability (dMMR/MSI). We aimed to assess the outcomes of dMMR/MSI mCRC pts receiving CT after ICI failure. Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study investigating the outcomes of all dMMR/MSI mCRC pts who received post-ICI CT between 2015 and 2020. Results: 31 pts (male 61%, median age 56 years) were included. ICI was an anti-PD(L)1 monotherapy in 71% of pts, and 61% received >2 lines before post-ICI CT. The overall response rate and disease control rate were 13% and 45%, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival of 2.9 and 7.4 months, respectively. No association of the outcomes with either ICI efficacy or anti-angiogenic agents was observed. Prolonged PFS (range 16.1–21.3 months) was observed in 4 pts (13%). Conclusions: Although conducted on a limited number of patients, our results do not support an association of previous ICI treatment with an enhanced efficacy of CT in dMMR/MSI mCRC. However, prolonged disease control was observed in several cases, suggesting that some pts might derive an unexpected benefit from post-ICI treatments.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 407
Author(s):  
Darren M. C. Poon ◽  
Kuen Chan ◽  
Tim Chan ◽  
Foo-Yiu Cheung ◽  
Daisy Lam ◽  
...  

Progression to metastatic disease occurs in about half of all men who develop prostate cancer (PC), one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Androgen deprivation therapy has been the mainstay therapy for patients with metastatic PC (mPC) since the 1940s. In the last decade, there has been unprecedented advancement in systemic therapies, e.g., taxane, androgen-signalling pathway inhibitors, and biomarker-driven targeted therapies for various stages of disease, resulting in overall survival improvement. Adding to ongoing controversies over how best to treat these patients is the recognition that ethnicity may influence prognosis and outcomes. This review discusses recent evidence for the impacts of Asian ethnicity specifically, which includes environmental, sociocultural, and genetic factors, on the approach to pharmacological management of mPC. Clear inter-ethnic differences in drug tolerability, serious adverse events (AEs), and genetic heterogeneity must all be considered when dosing and scheduling for treatment, as well as designing future precision studies in PC.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 409
Author(s):  
Alicja Chrzanowska ◽  
Wioletta Olejarz ◽  
Grażyna Kubiak-Tomaszewska ◽  
Andrzej K. Ciechanowicz ◽  
Marta Struga

Purpose: To assess cytotoxic effect of ciprofloxacin conjugates with fatty acids on prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145) with different hormone sensitivity, based on previous promising results from the PC3 cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity were estimated using MTT and LDH tests, whereas its mechanisms were estimated by apoptosis and IL-6 assays. The intensity of proteins involved in lipid metabolism was determined using ML-CS assay. Results: The hormone insensitive DU-145 cells were more vulnerable than the hormone sensitive LNCaP cells. The IC50 values for oleic (4), elaidic (5) and docosahexaenoic acid (8) conjugates were 20.2 µM, 17.8 µM and 16.5 µM, respectively, in DU-145 cells, whereas in LNCaP cells IC50 exceeded 20 µM. The strong conjugate cytotoxicity was confirmed in the LDH test, the highest (70.8%) for compound (5) and 64.2% for compound (8) in DU-145 cells. This effect was weaker for LNCaP cells (around 60%). The cytotoxic effect of unconjugated ciprofloxacin and fatty acids was weaker. The early apoptosis was predominant in LNCaP while in DU-145 cells both early and late apoptosis was induced. The tested conjugates decreased IL-6 release in both cancer cell lines by almost 50%. Proteomic analysis indicated influence of the ciprofloxacin conjugates on lipid metabolic proteins in prostatic cancer. Conclusion: Our findings suggested the cytotoxic potential of ciprofloxacin conjugates with reduction in proteins involved in prostate cancer progress.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 415
Author(s):  
Limin Jiang ◽  
Hui Yu ◽  
Scott Ness ◽  
Peng Mao ◽  
Fei Guo ◽  
...  

Somatic mutations are one of the most important factors in tumorigenesis and are the focus of most cancer-sequencing efforts. The co-occurrence of multiple mutations in one tumor has gained increasing attention as a means of identifying cooperating mutations or pathways that contribute to cancer. Using multi-omics, phenotypical, and clinical data from 29,559 cancer subjects and 1747 cancer cell lines covering 78 distinct cancer types, we show that co-mutations are associated with prognosis, drug sensitivity, and disparities in sex, age, and race. Some co-mutation combinations displayed stronger effects than their corresponding single mutations. For example, co-mutation TP53:KRAS in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is significantly associated with disease specific survival (hazard ratio = 2.87, adjusted p-value = 0.0003) and its prognostic predictive power is greater than either TP53 or KRAS as individually mutated genes. Functional analyses revealed that co-mutations with higher prognostic values have higher potential impact and cause greater dysregulation of gene expression. Furthermore, many of the prognostically significant co-mutations caused gains or losses of binding sequences of RNA binding proteins or micro RNAs with known cancer associations. Thus, detailed analyses of co-mutations can identify mechanisms that cooperate in tumorigenesis.


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