Pulmonary Embolism
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2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (3) ◽  
pp. 177-186
Author(s):  
Yu. V Ovchinnikov ◽  
M. V. Zelenov ◽  
V. S. Polovinka ◽  
E. V. Kryukov

Analysis of clinical effi cacy and safety of alteplase and recombinant prourokinase in 82 patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) of high and intermediate high risk of death during the hospital observation period, whо were divided into two groups depending on the thrombolytic applied: the 1st group — recombinant prourokinase (40 people), the 2nd group — alteplase (42 people). The results of treatment, indicators of eff ectiveness and safety of thrombolytic therapy with alteplase and recombinant prourokinase were analyzed. The eff ectiveness and safety of thrombolytic therapy, evaluated clinically and instrumentally, did not diff er in the use of the drugs studied. However, at the time of development of PE from 5 to 14 days from the onset of the disease, for thrombolysis, it is preferable to use recombinant prourokinase, as it leads to a more signifi cant reduction in the volume of thrombotic masses than with the use of alteplase.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Javier de-Miguel-Diez ◽  
Marta Lopez-Herranz ◽  
Valentín Hernandez-Barrera ◽  
David Jimenez ◽  
Manuel Monreal ◽  
...  

AbstractWe determined sex differences in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among patients hospitalized with pulmonary embolism (PE) in Spain (2016–2018). We also compared outcomes according to the presence of OSA, and identified variables associated with in-hospital-mortality (IHM) after PE using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. We identified 46,794 hospital admissions for PE; of these, 5.47% had OSA. OSA was more prevalent among men than women (7.57% vs. 3.65%, p < 0.001), as in the general population. Propensity score matching did not reveal differences in concomitant conditions or procedures between patients with and without OSA, except for the use of non-invasive ventilation, which was more frequent in patients with OSA. IHM was similar in patients with and without OSA (3.58% vs. 4.31% for men and 4.39% vs. 4.93% for women; p > 0.05). Older age, cancer, atrial fibrillation, non-septic shock, and need for mechanical ventilation increased IHM in men and women with OSA hospitalized with PE. The logistic regression model showed no sex differences in IHM among patients with OSA.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryo Kamidani ◽  
Keisuke Kumada ◽  
Hideshi Okada ◽  
Genki Yoshimura ◽  
Tomohiro Kanayama ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a condition that involves the development of pulmonary hypertension due to the presence of microscopic tumor emboli of the peripheral pulmonary arteries. Here, we report a case of rapidly exacerbating PTTM associated with gastric cancer that was identified postmortem through pathological autopsy. Case presentation A 52-year-old Asian woman who experienced anterior chest pain while coughing visited the orthopedic department of the Gifu University Hospital. She was diagnosed as having multiple osteolytic bone metastases throughout her body and was subsequently scheduled to undergo combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (CT) to search for a primary lesion. However, 4 days after her visit to the orthopedic department, she was unable to stand up and thus visited the emergency department. At the time of admission, physical examination results revealed that she had a percutaneous oxygen saturation level of 90% (on room air) and cyanosis and that she was in a state of hemodynamic shock. Laboratory test results revealed elevated levels of fibrin degradation products and D-dimer in her blood. Chest CT results were normal. She was admitted to the hospital’s general ward for follow-up but soon entered a gradually worsening state of shock and respiratory failure. Electrocardiography revealed findings associated with right heart strain; however, contrast-enhanced CT did not reveal the presence of pulmonary embolism. She was admitted to the intensive care unit and was treated for pulmonary hypertension; however, 45 h after her arrival at the hospital, she died of respiratory failure. A pathological autopsy revealed the presence of gastric cancer, tumor microemboli, and fibrous intimal thickening of the peripheral arteries of both lungs; thus, a diagnosis of PTTM was made. Conclusions In patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site and pulmonary hypertension with pulmonary embolism ruled out by CT, emergency physicians and intensivists must consider the possibility of PTTM, which represents an oncologic emergency, and initiate chemotherapy administration as soon as possible.


Author(s):  
Hannah C. Kulka ◽  
Andreas Zeller ◽  
Jürgen Fornaro ◽  
Walter A. Wuillemin ◽  
Stavros Konstantinides ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marvin R. McCreary ◽  
Patrick M. Schnell ◽  
Dale A. Rhoda

Abstract Resveratrol is a polyphenol that has been well studied and has demonstrated anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties that might mitigate the effects of COVID-19. Outpatients (N=105) were recruited from central Ohio in late 2020. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or resveratrol. Both groups received a single dose of Vitamin D3 which was used as an adjunct. The primary outcome measure was hospitalization within 21 days of symptom onset; secondary measures were ER visits, incidence of pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. Five patients chose not to participate after randomization. Twenty-one day outcome was determined of all one hundred participants (mean [SD] age 55.6 [8.8] years; 61% female) (or their surrogates). There were no clinically significant adverse events attributed to resveratrol. Outpatients in this phase 2 study treated with resveratrol had a lower incidence compared to placebo of: hospitalization (2% vs. 6%, RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.04-3.10), COVID-related ER visits (8% vs. 14%, RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.18-1.83), and pneumonia (8% vs. 16%, RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.16-1.55). One patient (2%) in each group developed pulmonary embolism (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.06-15.55). This underpowered study was limited by small sample size and low incidence of primary adverse events. A larger trial could determine efficacy.TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04400890 26/05/2020; FDA IND #150033 05/05/2020


Author(s):  
Alessandra Mirabile ◽  
Nicola Maria Lucarelli ◽  
Enza Pia Sollazzo ◽  
Amato Antonio Stabile Ianora ◽  
Angela Sardaro ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose To assess the percentage of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) procedures that could have been avoided by methodical application of the Revised Geneva Score (RGS) coupled with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs rather than only clinical judgment in Emergency Department patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and methods Between November 2019 and May 2020, 437 patients with suspected PE based on symptoms and D-dimer test were included in this study. All patients underwent to CTPA. For each patient, we retrospectively calculated the age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs and the RGS in the original version. Finally, CT images were retrospectively reviewed, and the presence of PE was recorded. Results In total, 43 (9.84%) CTPA could have been avoided by use of RGS coupled with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs. Prevalence of PE was 14.87%. From the analysis of 43 inappropriate CTPA, 24 (55.81%) of patients did not show any thoracic signs, two (4.65%) of patients had PE, and the remaining patients had alternative thoracic findings. Conclusion The study showed good prevalence of PE diagnoses in our department using only physician assessment, although 9.84% CTPA could have been avoided by methodical application of RGS coupled with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 444-450
Author(s):  
A. A. Pleshko ◽  
◽  
E. B. Petrova ◽  
◽  
◽  
...  

Background. At the present time more than 185 million people are infected with the new coronavirus infection (CVI) SARS-CoV-2, which caused COVID-19 pandemic according to WHO. The issue of increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and associated severe course of the disease in persons with abdominal obesity (AO) is actively discussed in national and foreign publications. Objective of the study. To determine the clinical and laboratory features of PE in patients with abdominal obesity infected with SARS-CoV-2 Material and Methods. An analysis of 11.056 medical records of inpatients treated in the infectious disease departments for patients with COVID-19 of the 4th City Clinical Hospital named after N.E. Savchenko of Minsk during the period from April 1, 2020 to May 31, 2021 was performed. AO in subjects included in the retrospective analysis was determined according to WHO criteria as a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2, waist circumference greater than 94 cm in men and 80 cm in women, respectively. To determine clinical and laboratory features of PE, as well as the effect of AO on the severity of this complication, inclusion/exclusion/exclusion criteria were developed and a sample of medical records of patients with COVID-19 (n=33), whose diagnosis of PE was verified by computed tomographic angiography of the chest (CTA chest) was formed. Clinical and instrumental parameters and laboratory characteristics were analyzed in the studied groups at the moment of admission to the hospital and at the time of PE development. Results. According to the results of a retrospective analysis of 11 056 medical records, the proportion of patients in whom the final diagnosis of PE was present was 3.68% (n=407), among whom AO was observed in 22.11% (n=90) of patients. The prevalence of subjects with impaired lipid metabolism among those included in the analysis was 11.38% (n=1259). PE developed in 90 patients with CVI and AO (0.81%) and in 317 patients without AO (2.87%). The prevalence of patients with PE (n=90) in the CVI and AO group (n=1259) was 7.15%; among those with CVI without AO (n=9797) - 3.24% (n=317). In the formed group with AO, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen levels at hospitalization were higher than in the group of patients without AO: 116.64 (80.38-134.08) mg/L versus 30.21 (15.11-57.21) mg/L (U=36.04; p<0.01) and 6.97 (6.11 to 8.03) g/L versus 4.71 (4.02 to 5.59) g/L (U=12.0, p<0.01) respectively. On the day of suspected PE, CRP levels were higher in the group of patients with AO and COVID-19 than in the group of patients without AO: 71.01 (50.59-105.06) mg/L versus 34.01 (18.85-60.81) mg/L (U=49.00; p<0.05). In patients with CVI and PE, there was a moderate positive relationship between the presence of AO and the severe course of COVID-19 (r=0.41; p<0.05), AO and elevated fibrinogen levels on admission to the hospital (r=0.58 p <0.05), a strong positive relationship between the presence of AO and increased serum CRP level at the time of hospitalization (r = 0.76; p < 0.01), a moderate positive relationship between AO and CRP level determined at the time of development of PE (r = 0.51; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Among the patients with COVID-19 and AO complicated by the development of PE in comparison with patients without AR was determined a higher prevalence of individuals with a severe course of CVI (χ2=5,18; p<0.05), lower oxygen saturation values at admission and at the time of PE development (U =46.5; p<0.05) and (U=49.5; p<0.05), respectively, higher fibrinogen and CRP levels at the time of hospitalization (U=12.0; p<0.01) and (U=36.04; p<0.01), respectively, higher CRP values at the manifestation of PE (U=49.00; p<0.05). The obtained data indicates in favor of the fact that AO can be considered as a risk factor for the severe course of COVID-19. The pathophysiological basis of the development, course and prognosis of thromboembolic complications in patients with COVID-19 and AO requires further clarification during prospective follow-up of this category of patients.


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