multivariable analysis
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2022 ◽  
pp. jrheum.210755
Karoline Walscheid ◽  
Kai Rothaus ◽  
Martina Niewerth ◽  
Jens Klotsche ◽  
Kirsten Minden ◽  

Objective Data on uveitis in juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA), a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), are scarce. We describe prevalence and risk factors for JPsA-associated uveitis (JPsA-U). Methods Cross-sectional data from the National Pediatric Rheumatological Database (from 2002 to 2014) were used to characterize JPsA-U and assess risk factors for uveitis development. Results Uveitis developed in 6.6% of 1862 JPsA patients. JPsA-U patients were more frequently female (73.0 vs 62.9%, p=0.031), ANA positive (60.3 vs 37.0%, p<0.001), younger at JPsA onset (5.3 ± 4.1 vs 9.3 ± 4.4 years, p<0.001), and received DMARD (disease modifying antirheumatic drug) treatment significantly more frequently than JPsA patients without uveitis. On multivariable analysis of a subgroup of 655 patients, mean cJADAS during study documentation was significantly associated with uveitis development. Children with early onset of JPsA were significantly more frequently ANA positive (48.4% vs 35.7% for those younger than 5 years at JPsA onset versus those aged 5 years and older, p<0.001), less often affected by skin disease (55.3% vs 61.0%, p=0.032), but more frequently by uveitis (17.3% vs 3.8%, p<0.001), and required DMARD treatment more frequently (52.9% vs 43.8%, p<0.001). Conclusion The characteristics of JPsA patients developing uveitis are similar to those of patients with uveitis in other JIA categories, such as oligoarticular JIA. Especially those children with early onset of JPsA seem to be at a higher risk for ocular involvement. Our data support the notion of a major clinical difference between those patients with early versus late onset of JPsA.

Luca Cegolon ◽  
Melania Bortolotto ◽  
Saverio Bellizzi ◽  
Andrea Cegolon ◽  
Luciano Bubbico ◽  

Background. The peak of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among adolescents/young adults suggests a low level of prevention. In order to assess whether the level of sexual health education (SHE), received by several channels, was effective at improving sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey among freshmen from four Italian universities. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted with an anonymous self-reported paper questionnaire, administered during teaching lectures to university freshmen of the northern (Padua, Bergamo, and Milan campuses) and southern (Palermo campus) parts of the country. Knowledge of STI (a linear numerical score), knowledge of STI prevention (dichotomous variable: yes vs. no) and previous STI occurrence (polytomous variable: “no”; “don’t know”; “yes”) were the outcomes in the statistical analysis. Results. The final number of freshmen surveyed was 4552 (97.9% response rate). The mean age of respondents was 21.4 ± 2.2 years and most of them (70.3%) were females. A total of 60% of students were in a stable romantic relationship. Only 28% respondents knew the most effective methods to prevent STI (i.e., condom and sexual abstinence), with a slightly higher prevalence of correct answers among females (31.3%) than males (25.8%). Students with history of STIs were 5.1%; they reported referring mostly to their general practitioner (GP) (38.1%) rather than discussing the problem with their partner (13.1%). At multivariable analysis, a significantly higher level of STI knowledge was observed in older students (25+ years of age), biomedical students, and those from a non-nuclear family; lower levels were found among students of the University of Palermo, and those who completed a vocational secondary school education. Those who had less knowledge about the most effective tools to prevent STIs included males, students from the University of Palermo, students registered with educational sciences, economics/political sciences, those of foreign nationality, and those whose fathers had lower educational levels. The risk of contracting STI was significantly lower only in students not in a stable relationship (relative risk ratio, RRR = 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI = 0.48; 0.94), whereas such risk was significantly higher in students with higher STI knowledge (RRR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.08; 1.22). Discussion and Conclusions. University freshmen investigated in this study had poor knowledge of STIs and their prevention. Unexpectedly, those with higher levels of knowledge had an increased risk of STIs. There were no educational interventions—with good quality and long-term follow-ups—that increased the confidence that such SHE programs could have population level effects. A new high-quality study is therefore required to assess the effectiveness of an intervention generating behavioral changes; increasing only knowledge may not be sufficient.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 193
Konstantinos Bartziokas ◽  
Christos Kyriakopoulos ◽  
Dimitrios Potonos ◽  
Konstantinos Exarchos ◽  
Athena Gogali ◽  

Background: Uric acid (UA) is the final product of purine metabolism and a marker of oxidative stress that may be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and thromboembolic disease. The aim of the current study is to investigate the potential value of UA to creatinine ratio (UA/Cr) as a diagnostic tool for the outcome of patients admitted with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and the correlations with other parameters. Methods: We evaluated 116 patients who were admitted for PE in a respiratory medicine department. PE was confirmed with computed tomography pulmonary angiography. Outcomes evaluated were hospitalization duration, mortality or thrombolysis and a composite endpoint (defined as mortality or thrombolysis). Patients were assessed for PE severity with the PE Severity Index (PESI) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2019 risk stratification. Results: The median (interquartile range) UA/Cr level was 7.59 (6.3–9.3). UA/Cr was significantly associated with PESI (p < 0.001), simplified PESI (p = 0.019), and ESC 2019 risk stratification (p < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for prediction of 30-day mortality by UA/Cr was 0.793 (95% CI: 0.667–0.918). UA/Cr levels ≥7.64 showed 87% specificity and 94% negative predictive value for mortality. In multivariable analysis UA/Cr was an independent predictor of mortality (HR (95% CI): 1.620 (1.245–2.108), p < 0.001) and composite outcome (HR (95% CI): 1.521 (1.211–1.908), p < 0.001). Patients with elevated UA/Cr levels (≥7.64) had longer hospitalization (median (IQR) 7 (5–11) vs. 6 (5–8) days, p = 0.006)), higher mortality (27.3% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.001) and worse composite endpoint (32.7% vs. 3.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Serum UA/Cr ratio levels at the time of PE diagnosis are associated with disease severity and risk stratification, and may be a useful biomarker for the identification of patients at risk of adverse outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Rebecca Milton ◽  
Fatima Zara Modibbo ◽  
William John Watkins ◽  
David Gillespie ◽  
Fatima Ibrahim Alkali ◽  

Background:Stillbirths are a poignant representation of global inequality. Nigeria is documented to have the second highest rate; yet, the reporting system is inadequate in most Nigerian healthcare facilities. The aim was to identify the determinants of stillbirth among deliveries in the Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano, Nigeria.Methods:Two study designs were used: a case-control study (S1) and a prospective cohort study (S2). Both studies were carried out at the MMSH. For S1, stillbirths were retrospectively matched to a livebirth by time (target of 24 hours' time variation) to establish a case-control study with a 1:1 ratio. Eligibility into S2 included all mothers who were presented at the MMSH in labour regardless of birth outcome. Both were based on recruitment durations, not sample sizes (3 months and 2 months, respectively, 2017–2018). The demographic and clinical data were collected through paper-based questionnaires. Univariable logistic regression was used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore relationships between area type and other specific factors.Findings:Stillbirth incidence in S2 was 180/1,000 births. Stillbirth was associated with the following factors; no maternal education, previous stillbirth(s), prematurity, living in both semi-rural and rural settings, and having extended time periods between rupture of membranes and delivery. Findings of the multivariable analysis (S1 and S2) indicated that the odds of stillbirth, for those living in a rural area, were further exacerbated in those mothers who had no education, lived in a shack, or had any maternal disease.Interpretation:This research identifies the gravity of this situation in this area and highlights the need for action. Further understanding of some of the findings and exploration into associations are required to inform intervention development.Funding:This collaboration was partially supported by funding from Health and Care Research Wales.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiayin Wang ◽  
Qiangqiang Feng ◽  
Yinbin Zhang ◽  
Weizhi Qiu ◽  
Hongzhi Gao

Introduction: Recent reports revealed that higher serum glucose-potassium ratio (GPR) levels at admission were significantly associated with poor outcomes at 3 months following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). This study aimed to investigate the association between GPR and the risk of rebleeding following aSAH.Methods: This single-center retrospective study of patients with aSAH was conducted in our hospital between January 2008 and December 2020. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into the rebleed group and the non-rebleed group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were implemented to assess the association between risk factors of rebleeding and outcomes.Results: A total of 1,367 patients experiencing aSAH, 744 patients who met the entry criteria in the study [mean age (54.89 ± 11.30) years; 60.50% female patients], of whom 45 (6.05%) developed rebleeding. The patients in the rebleed group had significantly higher GPR levels than those of patients without rebleeding [2.13 (1.56–3.20) vs. 1.49 (1.23–1.87); p &lt; 0.001]. Multivariable analysis revealed that higher mFisher grade and GPR were associated with rebleeding [mFisher grade, odds ratios (OR) 0.361, 95% CI 0.166–0.783, p = 0.01; GPR, OR 0.254, 95% CI 0.13–0.495, p &lt; 0.001]. The receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) analysis described that the suitable cut-off value for GPR as a predictor for rebleeding in patients with aSAH was determined as 2.09 (the area under the curve [AUC] was 0.729, 95% CI 0.696–0.761, p &lt; 0.0001; the sensitivity was 53.33%, and the specificity was 83.98%). Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between GPR and mFisher grade, between GPR and Hunt–Hess grade (mFisher grade r = 0.4271, OR 0.1824, 95% CI 0.3665–0.4842, p &lt; 0.001; Hunt–Hess grade r = 0.4248, OR 0.1836, 95% CI 0.3697–0.4854, p &lt; 0.001). The patients in the poor outcome had significantly higher GPR levels than those of patients in the good outcome [1.87 (1.53–2.42) vs. 1.45 (1.20–1.80); p &lt; 0.001]. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that GPR was an independent predictor for poor prognosis. The AUC of GPR was 0.709 (95% CI 0.675–0.741; p &lt; 0.0001) (sensitivity = 77.70%; specificity = 55.54%) for poor prognosis.Conclusion: Higher preoperative serum GPR level was associated with Hunt–Hess grade, mFisher grade, rebleeding, and unfunctional outcome, and that they predicted preoperative rebleeding and the 90-days outcome of non-diabetic patients with aSAH, who had potentially relevant clinical implications in patients with aSAH.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Matthew R. Woeste ◽  
Khaleel D. Wilson ◽  
Edward J. Kruse ◽  
Matthew J. Weiss ◽  
John D. Christein ◽  

BackgroundIrreversible electroporation (IRE) has emerged as a viable consolidative therapy after induction chemotherapy, in which this combination has improved overall survival of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Optimal timing and patient selection for irreversible electroporation remains a clinically unmet need. The aim of this study was to investigate preoperative factors that may assist in predicting progression-free and overall survival following IRE.MethodsA multi-institutional, prospectively maintained database was reviewed for patients with LAPC treated with induction chemotherapy followed by open-technique irreversible electroporation from 7/2015-5/2019. RECIST 1.1 criteria were used to assess tumor response and radiological progression. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were recorded. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan Meier and Cox multivariable regression analyses.Results187 LAPC patients (median age 62 years range, 21 – 91, 65% men, 35% women) were treated with IRE. Median PFS was 21.7 months and median OS from diagnosis was 25.5 months. On multivariable analysis, age ≤ 61 (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.21-0.78, p&lt;0.008) and no prior radiation (HR 0.49, 95%CI 0.26-0.94, p=0.03) were positive predictors of OS after IRE. Age ≤ 61(HR 0.53, 95%CI, 0.28-.99, p=0.046) and FOLFIRINOX followed by gemcitabine/abraxane induction chemotherapy (HR 0.37,95%CI 0.15-0.89, p=0.027) predicted prolonged PFS after IRE. Abnormal CA19-9 values at the time of surgery negatively impacted both OS (HR 2.46, 95%CI 1.28-4.72, p&lt;0.007) and PFS (HR 2.192, 95%CI 1.143-4.201, p=0.018) following IRE.ConclusionsAge, CA 19-9 response, avoidance of pre-IRE radiation, and FOLFIRINOX plus gemcitabine/abraxane induction chemotherapy are prominent factors to consider when referring or selecting LAPC patients to undergo IRE.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Jae Hwan Kim ◽  
Chiwon Ahn ◽  
Myeong Namgung

In this study, we investigated the mortality of septic shock patients visiting emergency departments (ED) before and after the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic onset. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and National Emergency Department Information System data of septic shock patients who visited the ED of a tertiary medical center in South Korea from February 2019 to February 2021. Following the COVID-19 pandemic onset, revised institutional ED processes included a stringent isolation protocol for patients visiting the ED. The primary goal of this study was to determine the mortality rate of septic shock patients from before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Durations of vasopressor use, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and hospitalization were investigated. The mortality rates increased from 24.8% to 35.8%, before and after COVID-19-onset, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.079). No significant differences in other outcomes were found. Multivariable analysis revealed that the Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS III) was the only risk factor for mortality (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10), whereas COVID-19 pandemic was not included in the final model. The non-significant influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on septic shock mortality rates in the present study belies the actual mortality-influencing potential of the COVID-19 pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Damon P. Eisen ◽  
Elizabeth Hamilton ◽  
Jacob Bodilsen ◽  
Rasmus Køster-Rasmussen ◽  
Alexander J. Stockdale ◽  

AbstractTo optimally define the association between time to effective antibiotic therapy and clinical outcomes in adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis. A systematic review of the literature describing the association between time to antibiotics and death or neurological impairment due to adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis was performed. A retrospective cohort, multivariable and propensity-score based analyses were performed using individual patient clinical data from Australian, Danish and United Kingdom studies. Heterogeneity of published observational study designs precluded meta-analysis of aggregate data (I2 = 90.1%, 95% CI 71.9–98.3%). Individual patient data on 659 subjects were made available for analysis. Multivariable analysis was performed on 180–362 propensity-score matched data. The risk of death (adjusted odds ratio, aOR) associated with treatment after two hours was 2.29 (95% CI 1.28–4.09) and increased substantially thereafter. Similarly, time to antibiotics of greater than three hours was associated with an increase in the occurrence of neurological impairment (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.03–3.14). Among patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, odds of mortality increase markedly when antibiotics are given later than two hours after presentation to the hospital.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hankun Yan ◽  
Yang Gao ◽  
Na Zhao ◽  
Wenlei Geng ◽  
Zhihui Hou ◽  

Aims: This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance of change in computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) across the lesion (ΔCT-FFR) for identifying ischemia lesions with FFR as the reference standard.Methods: Patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and FFR measurement within 1 week from December 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively enrolled. CT-FFR within 2 cm distal to the lesion, ΔCT-FFR and plaque characteristics were analyzed. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA (coronary stenosis ≥ 50%), CT-FFR ≤ 0.80, and ΔCT-FFR ≥ 0.15 (based on the largest Youden index) were assessed with FFR as the reference standard. The relationship between plaque characteristics and ΔCT-FFR was analyzed.Results: The specificity of ΔCT-FFR and CT-FFR were 70.8 and 67.4%, respectively, which were both higher than CCTA (39.3%) (both P &lt; 0.001), while there were no statistical significance in sensitivity among the three (84.5, 77.4, 88.1%, respectively; P = 0.08). The area under the curves (AUCs) of ΔCT-FFR and CT-FFR were 0.803 and 0.743, respectively, which were both higher than that of CCTA (0.637) (both P &lt; 0.05), and the AUC of ΔCT-FFR was higher than that of CT-FFR (P &lt; 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that low-attenuation plaque (LAP) volume (odds ratio [OR], 1.006) and plaque length (OR, 1.021) were independently correlated with ΔCT-FFR (both P &lt; 0.05).Conclusions: CT-FFR and ΔCT-FFR and here especially the ΔCT-FFR could improve the diagnostic performance of ischemia compared with CCTA alone. LAP volume and plaque length were the independent risk factors of ΔCT-FFR.

2022 ◽  
Daniel Schmidt ◽  
Christian Kollan ◽  
Barbara Bartmeyer ◽  
Viviane Bremer ◽  
Tim Schikowski ◽  

Abstract IntroductionObjectives of this study, as part of a nation-wide HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) evaluation project, were to determine the incidence and prevalence of infections with HIV, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Hepatitis A/B/C in persons using PrEP, and to describe the health care funded PrEP use in Germany. Additionally, factors associated with Chlamydia/Gonorrhea and Syphilis infections were assessed.MethodsAnonymous data of PrEP users were collected at HIV-specialty centers from 09/2019-12/2020. Incidence rates were calculated per 100 person years (py). Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs).Results4620 PrEP users were included: 99.2% male, median age 38 years (IQR 32-45), PrEP indication 98.6% men who have sex with men (MSM). Duration of PrEP use were 5132 py; median duration 451 days (IQR 357-488).Four HIV infections were diagnosed, incidence rate 0,078/100py (95% CI 0.029-0.208). For two suboptimal adherence was reported and in the third case suboptimal adherence and resistance to emtricitabine was observed. One infection was likely acquired before PrEP start.Incidence rates were 21.6/100py for Chlamydia, 23.7/100py for Gonorrhea, 10.1/100py for Syphilis and 55.4/100py for any STI and decreased significantly. 65.5% of Syphilis, 55.6% of Chlamydia and 50.1% of Gonorrhea cases were detected by screening of asymptomatic individuals. In a multivariable analysis among MSM younger age, PrEP start before health insurance coverage and daily PrEP were associated with greater risk for Chlamydia/Gonorrhea. Symptom triggered testing and a history of STI were associated with a higher risk for Chlamydia/Gonorrhea and Syphilis.ConclusionsWe found that HIV-PrEP is almost exclusively used by MSM in Germany. A very low incidence of HIV-infection and decreasing incidence rates of STIs were found in this cohort of PrEP users. The results were likely influenced by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Rollout of PrEP covered by health insurance should be continued to prevent HIV infections. Increased PrEP availability to people at risk of HIV infection through the elimination of barriers requires further attention. Investigation and monitoring with a longer follow-up would be of value.

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