adverse outcomes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Dai Zhang ◽  
Wen Tang ◽  
Li-Yang Dou ◽  
Jia Luo ◽  
Ying Sun

Abstract Background Frail patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) face a higher risk of adverse outcomes, but there is no clear consensus on which frailty measures are most suitable for COPD patients. Herein we evaluated the ability of frailty measurements in predicting 1-year acute exacerbation, hospitalization, and mortality in older patients with COPD. Methods A total of 302 patients [median age: 86 years (IQR: 80–90), 22.2% female] were admitted to the Department of Geriatric Medicine were prospectively enrolled in this study. Frailty status was assessed using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP), Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), Frailty Index of Accumulative Deficits (FI-CD), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Cox proportional hazard regression and Poisson regression were used to evaluating the association of the adverse outcomes with frailty as assessed using the four instruments. The discrimination accuracy of these tools in predicting the 1-year all-cause mortality was also compared. Results Prevalence of frailty ranged from 51% (using FFP) to 64.2% (using CFS). The four frail instruments were associated with 1-year mortality. After an average follow-up time of 2.18 years (IQR: 1.56–2.62 years), frailty as defined by four instruments (except for FI-CD), was associated with death [FFP: Hazard ratio (HR) = 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–7.44; CFS: HR = 3.68, 95% CI 1.03–13.16; SPPB: HR = 3.74, 95% CI 1.39–10.06). Frailty was also associated with acute exacerbation (using FFP) and hospitalization (using FFP, CFS, and FI-CD). Frail showed a moderate predictive ability [area under the curve ranging (AUC) 0.70–0.80] and a high negative predictive value (0.98–0.99) for 1-year mortality. Conclusions With the four different frailty assessment tools, frailty was associated with poor prognosis in older patients with stable COPD. The FFP, CFS, FI-CD, and SPPB instruments showed similar performance in predicting 1-year mortality.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 193
Konstantinos Bartziokas ◽  
Christos Kyriakopoulos ◽  
Dimitrios Potonos ◽  
Konstantinos Exarchos ◽  
Athena Gogali ◽  

Background: Uric acid (UA) is the final product of purine metabolism and a marker of oxidative stress that may be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and thromboembolic disease. The aim of the current study is to investigate the potential value of UA to creatinine ratio (UA/Cr) as a diagnostic tool for the outcome of patients admitted with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and the correlations with other parameters. Methods: We evaluated 116 patients who were admitted for PE in a respiratory medicine department. PE was confirmed with computed tomography pulmonary angiography. Outcomes evaluated were hospitalization duration, mortality or thrombolysis and a composite endpoint (defined as mortality or thrombolysis). Patients were assessed for PE severity with the PE Severity Index (PESI) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2019 risk stratification. Results: The median (interquartile range) UA/Cr level was 7.59 (6.3–9.3). UA/Cr was significantly associated with PESI (p < 0.001), simplified PESI (p = 0.019), and ESC 2019 risk stratification (p < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for prediction of 30-day mortality by UA/Cr was 0.793 (95% CI: 0.667–0.918). UA/Cr levels ≥7.64 showed 87% specificity and 94% negative predictive value for mortality. In multivariable analysis UA/Cr was an independent predictor of mortality (HR (95% CI): 1.620 (1.245–2.108), p < 0.001) and composite outcome (HR (95% CI): 1.521 (1.211–1.908), p < 0.001). Patients with elevated UA/Cr levels (≥7.64) had longer hospitalization (median (IQR) 7 (5–11) vs. 6 (5–8) days, p = 0.006)), higher mortality (27.3% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.001) and worse composite endpoint (32.7% vs. 3.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Serum UA/Cr ratio levels at the time of PE diagnosis are associated with disease severity and risk stratification, and may be a useful biomarker for the identification of patients at risk of adverse outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Joshua Rushakoff ◽  
Loren Gragert ◽  
Marcelo Pando ◽  
Darren Stewart ◽  
Edmung Huang ◽  

Background: Homozygosity for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) has been associated with adverse outcomes after viral infection as well as pregnancy-induced HLA sensitization. We sought to assess the relationship between HLA locus homozygosity and the level of HLA antibody sensitization. Methods: We measured sensitization using the calculated panel reactive antibody (CPRA) value for a large cohort of 147,461 patients added to the US OPTN/UNOS kidney transplant waitlist between December 2014 and December 2019. We used multinomial logistic modeling to compare 62,510 sensitized patients to 84,955 unsensitized controls. Results: We found that the number of homozygous HLA loci was strongly associated with the level of sensitization. Within highly- or extremely-sensitized candidates, women displayed a higher relative abundance of HLA homozygosity at multiple HLA loci as compared to men, with attenuation of this effect in Black candidates. In multinomial logistic modeling, the number of homozygous HLA loci was an independent predictor of sensitization and interacted with female sex but not with other factors associated with sensitization. Conclusions: This study shows that HLA homozygosity is an innate genetic factor that contributes to HLA sensitization, and enhances the effect of pregnancy-related sensitization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ashley Hagaman ◽  
Humberto Gonzalez Rodriguez ◽  
Clare Barrington ◽  
Kavita Singh ◽  
Abiy Seifu Estifanos ◽  

Abstract Background Globally, amidst increased utilization of facility-based maternal care services, there is continued need to better understand women’s experience of care in places of birth. Quantitative surveys may not sufficiently characterize satisfaction with maternal healthcare (MHC) in local context, limiting their interpretation and applicability. The purpose of this study is to untangle how contextual and cultural expectations shape women’s care experience and what women mean by satisfaction in two Ethiopian regions. Methods Health center and hospital childbirth care registries were used to identify and interview 41 women who had delivered a live newborn within a six-month period. We used a semi-structured interview guide informed by the Donabedian framework to elicit women’s experiences with MHC and delivery, any prior delivery experiences, and recommendations to improve MHC. We used an inductive analytical approach to compare and contrast MHC processes, experiences, and satisfaction. Results Maternal and newborn survival and safety were central to women’s descriptions of their MHC experiences. Women nearly exclusively described healthy and safe deliveries with healthy outcomes as ‘satisfactory’. The texture behind this ‘satisfaction’, however, was shaped by what mothers bring to their delivery experiences, creating expectations from events including past births, experiences with antenatal care, and social and community influences. Secondary to the absence of adverse outcomes, health provider’s interpersonal behaviors (e.g., supportive communication and behavioral demonstrations of commitment to their births) and the facility’s amenities (e.g., bathing, cleaning, water, coffee, etc) enhanced women’s experiences. Finally, at the social and community levels, we found that family support and material resources may significantly buffer against negative experiences and facilitate women’s overall satisfaction, even in the context of poor-quality facilities and limited resources. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of understanding contextual factors including past experiences, expectations, and social support that influence perceived quality of MHC and the agency a woman has to negotiate her care experience. Our finding that newborn and maternal survival primarily drove women’s satisfaction suggests that quantitative assessments conducted shortly following delivery may be overly influenced by these outcomes and not fully capture the complexity of women’s care experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Moli Yin ◽  
Yuanwang Nie ◽  
Hao Liu ◽  
Lei Liu ◽  
Lu Tang ◽  

Abstract Background AKI is related to severe adverse outcomes and mortality with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, that early diagnosed and intervened is imperative. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is one of the most promising biomarkers for detection of acute kidney injury (AKI), but current detection methods are inadequacy, so more rapid, convenient and accuracy methods are needed to detect NGAL for early diagnosis of AKI. Herein, we established a rapid, reliable and accuracy lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on europium nanoparticles (EU-NPS) for the detection of NGAL in human urine specimens. Methods A double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay using europium doped nanoparticles was employed and the NGAL monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) conjugate as labels were generated by optimizing electric fusion parameters. Eighty-three urine samples were used to evaluate the clinical application efficiency of this method. Results The quantitative detection range of NGAL in AKI was 1-3000 ng/mL, and the detection sensitization was 0.36 ng/mL. The coefficient of variation (CV) of intra-assay and inter-assay were 2.57-4.98 % and 4.11-7.83 %, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation coefficient between europium nanoparticles-based lateral fluorescence immunoassays (EU-NPS-LFIA) and ARCHITECT analyzer was significant (R2 = 0.9829, n = 83, p < 0.01). Conclusions Thus, a faster and easier operation quantitative assay of NGAL for AKI has been established, which is very important and meaningful to diagnose the early AKI, suggesting that the assay can provide an early warning of final outcome of disease.

Gerontology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula ◽  
Wubshet Tesfaye ◽  
Kota Vidyasagar ◽  
Daniela Fialova

<b><i>Background and Aim:</i></b> Polypharmacy (concomitant use of 5–9 medicines) and hyperpolypharmacy (concomitant use of over 10 medicines) were observed to be more frequent in older adults (≥65 years) and associated with adverse outcomes. Their prevalence and risk in older patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain unknown. We aimed to synthesize the extant evidence on the prevalence and risk of polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy in older adults with PD. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases to identify pertinent studies published from 2000 to July 2021. Observational studies reporting the prevalence and association with disease of polypharmacy/hyperpolypharmacy in older adults with PD were meta-analyzed. Pooled prevalence and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Out of the total 499 studies identified, 6 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised 7,171 participants. The overall prevalence of polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy was 40% (95% CI: 37–44) and 18% (95% CI: 13–23), respectively. A meta-analysis of 4 studies indicated a significant association between polypharmacy (OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.26–2.62; <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001) and PD. Hyperpolypharmacy was also strongly associated with PD (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 2.08–4.14; <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Polypharmacy (40%) and hyperpolypharmacy (18%) are highly prevalent and eventually increase the risk of drug-related problems in older adults with PD. Therefore, interventions that ensure rational geriatric pharmacotherapy are of critical importance for the older population with neurogenerative disorders.

James Lucocq ◽  
John Scollay ◽  
Pradeep Patil

Abstract Introduction Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELLC) represent a heterogeneous group making it challenging to stratify risk. The aim of this paper is to identify pre-operative factors associated with adverse peri- and post-operative outcomes in patients undergoing ELLC. This knowledge will help stratify risk, guide surgical decision making and better inform the consent process. Methods All patients who underwent ELLC between January 2015 and December 2019 were included in the study. Pre-operative data and both peri- and post-operative outcomes were collected retrospectively from multiple databases using a deterministic records-linkage methodology. Patients were divided into groups based on clinical indication (i.e. biliary colic versus cholecystitis) and adverse outcomes were compared. Multivariate regression models were generated for each adverse outcome using pre-operative independent variables. Results Two-thousand one hundred and sixty-six ELLC were identified. Rates of peri- and post-operative adverse outcomes were significantly higher in the cholecystitis versus biliary colic group and increased with number of admissions of cholecystitis (p < 0.05). Rates of subtotal (29.5%), intra-operative complication (9.8%), post-operative complications (19.6%), prolonged post-operative stay (45.9%) and re-admission (16.4%) were significant in the group of patients with ≥ 2 admissions with cholecystitis. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that patients with repeated biliary admission (particularly cholecystitis) ultimately face an increased risk of a difficult ELLC with associated complications, prolonged post-operative stay and readmissions. These data provide robust evidence that individualised risk assessment and consent are necessary before ELLC. Strategies to minimise recurrent biliary admissions prior to LC should be implemented.

2022 ◽  
pp. 089686082110641
Ying Ma ◽  
Yingzhou Geng ◽  
Li Jin ◽  
Xiaopei Wang ◽  
Changna Liang ◽  

Background: The role of monitoring serum vancomycin levels during treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis is controversial. Substantial inter-individual variability may result in suboptimal serum levels despite similar dosing of vancomycin. The published predictors of suboptimal serum vancomycin levels remain limited. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from 541 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 312019. For gram-positive cocci and culture-negative peritonitis, we adopted a vancomycin administration and monitoring protocol. Short-term adverse outcomes of PD-associated peritonitis, including transfer to haemodialysis, death, persistent infection beyond planned therapy duration and relapse, were observed. The association between trough serum vancomycin levels and short-term adverse outcomes was evaluated. Results: Intraperitoneal vancomycin was used in 61 gram-positive cocci or culture-negative peritonitis episodes in 56 patients. Fourteen episodes of short-term adverse outcomes occurred in 12 patients, whose average trough serum vancomycin levels on day 5 of treatment were significantly lower than those who didn’t experience any adverse outcomes (8.4 ± 1.7 vs 12.5 ± 4.3 mg/L, p = 0.003). In gram-positive cocci or culture-negative peritonitis patients, those with higher day 5 trough serum vancomycin levels had a lower risk of short-term adverse outcomes (odds ratio: 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 0.9, p = 0.011). Receiver operating charecteristic curve (ROC) analyses showed that the day 5 trough serum vancomycin levels diagnostic threshold value for short-term adverse outcomes was 10.1 mg/L. After adjustments for gender, exchange volume and residual kidney function (RKF), baseline higher peritoneal transport was associated with a suboptimal (<10.1 mg/L) day 5 serum vancomycin level. Conclusions: Serum vancomycin levels are correlated with short-term adverse outcomes of PD-associated peritonitis, and higher peritoneal solute transport status is associated with suboptimal trough serum vancomycin levels on day 5.

2022 ◽  
Dian Kristiani Irawaty ◽  
Wahyu Utomo

Abstract The increasing number of Indonesian population has caused serious issue of open defecation. Indonesia ranks the second large of open defecation prevalence in the world, after India. Human’s excrement was disposed in trench, drain, terrace, grassland, backwoods, forest, river, lake or other open spaces, thus, contaminates the water system. Open defecation can lead to the increasing risk of transmission of water-boene diseases of child morbidity in Indonesia. This study aimed at exploring different socio-economic and demographic factors of Indonesians who practice open defecation. Data were obtained from 49,627 female respondents of the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. The data were examined utilizing descriptive and logistic regression. The results reveal that the practice of open defecation is significantly influenced by place of residence, household’s wealth quintile, and household’s water supply. The findings suggest the needs for toilet construction and water supply sustainability in public area as well as in poor neighbourhood to eliminate open defecation in the country.

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