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Published By Springer-Verlag

1432-1084, 0938-7994
Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

Yingzhen N. Zhang ◽  
Kathryn J. Fowler ◽  
Andrew S. Boehringer ◽  
Vivian Montes ◽  
Alexandra N. Schlein ◽  

Abstract Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of US shear wave elastography (SWE) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for classifying fibrosis stage in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Patients from a prospective single-center cohort with clinical liver biopsy for known or suspected NAFLD underwent contemporaneous SWE and MRE. AUCs for classifying biopsy-determined liver fibrosis stages ≥ 1, ≥ 2, ≥ 3, and = 4, and their respective performance parameters at cutoffs providing ≥ 90% sensitivity or specificity were compared between SWE and MRE. Results In total, 100 patients (mean age, 51.8 ± 12.9 years; 46% males; mean BMI 31.6 ± 4.7 kg/m2) with fibrosis stage distribution (stage 0/1/2/3/4) of 43, 36, 5, 10, and 6%, respectively, were included. AUCs (and 95% CIs) for SWE and MRE were 0.65 (0.54–0.76) and 0.81 (0.72–0.89), 0.81 (0.71–0.91) and 0.94 (0.89–1.00), 0.85 (0.74–0.96) and 0.95 (0.89–1.00), and 0.91 (0.79–1.00) and 0.92 (0.83–1.00), for detecting fibrosis stage ≥ 1, ≥ 2, ≥ 3, and = 4, respectively. The differences were significant for detecting fibrosis stage ≥ 1 and ≥ 2 (p < 0.01) but not otherwise. At ≥ 90% sensitivity cutoff, MRE yielded higher specificity than SWE at diagnosing fibrosis stage ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3. At ≥ 90% specificity cutoff, MRE yielded higher sensitivity than SWE at diagnosing fibrosis stage ≥ 1 and ≥ 2. Conclusions In adults with NAFLD, MRE was more accurate than SWE in diagnosing stage ≥ 1 and ≥ 2 fibrosis, but not stage ≥ 3 or 4 fibrosis. Key Points • For detecting any fibrosis or mild fibrosis, MR elastography was significantly more accurate than shear wave elastography. • For detecting advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, MRE and SWE did not differ significantly in accuracy. • For excluding advanced fibrosis and potentially ruling out the need for biopsy, SWE and MRE did not differ significantly in negative predictive value. • Neither SWE nor MRE had sufficiently high positive predictive value to rule in advanced fibrosis.

Charlotte C. Kik ◽  
Willem-Bart M. Slooff ◽  
Nizar Moayeri ◽  
Pim A. de Jong ◽  
Sander P. J. Muijs ◽  

Abstract Objectives Previous literature showed that the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is not equally comparable with that of the rarely used golden standard of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for detecting blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) in trauma patients. However, advances in CTA technology may prove CTA to become equally accurate. This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of CTA in detecting BCVI in comparison with DSA in trauma patients. Methods An electronic database search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood, diagnostic odds ratio, and 95% confidence intervals were determined using a bivariate random-effects model. Results Of the 3293 studies identified, 9 met the inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity was 64% (95% CI, 53–74%) and specificity 95% (95% CI, 87–99%) The estimated positive likelihood ratio was 11.8 (95%, 5.6–24.9), with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.38 (95%, 0.30–0.49) and a diagnostic odds ratio of 31 (95%, 17–56). Conclusion CTA has reasonable specificity but low sensitivity when compared to DSA in diagnosing any BCVI. An increase in channels to 64 slices did not yield better sensitivity. There is a risk for underdiagnosis of BCVI when only using DSA to confirm CTA-positive cases, especially in those patients with low-grade injuries. Key Points • Low sensitivity and high specificity were seen in identifying BCVI with CTA as compared to DSA. • Increased CTA detector channels (≤ 64) did not lead to higher sensitivity when detecting BCVI. • The use of CTA instead of DSA may lead to underdiagnosis and, consequently, undertreatment of BCVI.

Gudula J. A. M. Boon ◽  
Yvonne M. Ende-Verhaar ◽  
Ludo F. M. Beenen ◽  
Johan Coolen ◽  
Marion Delcroix ◽  

Abstract Objectives Closer reading of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scans of patients presenting with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) may identify those at high risk of developing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We aimed to validate the predictive value of six radiological predictors that were previously proposed. Methods Three hundred forty-one patients with acute PE were prospectively followed for development of CTEPH in six European hospitals. Index CTPAs were analysed post hoc by expert chest radiologists blinded to the final diagnosis. The accuracy of the predictors using a predefined threshold for ‘high risk’ (≥ 3 predictors) and the expert overall judgment on the presence of CTEPH were assessed. Results CTEPH was confirmed in nine patients (2.6%) during 2-year follow-up. Any sign of chronic thrombi was already present in 74/341 patients (22%) on the index CTPA, which was associated with CTEPH (OR 7.8, 95%CI 1.9–32); 37 patients (11%) had ≥ 3 of 6 radiological predictors, of whom 4 (11%) were diagnosed with CTEPH (sensitivity 44%, 95%CI 14–79; specificity 90%, 95%CI 86–93). Expert judgment raised suspicion of CTEPH in 27 patients, which was confirmed in 8 (30%; sensitivity 89%, 95%CI 52–100; specificity 94%, 95%CI 91–97). Conclusions The presence of ≥ 3 of 6 predefined radiological predictors was highly specific for a future CTEPH diagnosis, comparable to overall expert judgment, while the latter was associated with higher sensitivity. Dedicated CTPA reading for signs of CTEPH may therefore help in early detection of CTEPH after PE, although in our cohort this strategy would not have detected all cases. Key Points • Three expert chest radiologists re-assessed CTPA scans performed at the moment of acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis and observed a high prevalence of chronic thrombi and signs of pulmonary hypertension. • On these index scans, the presence of ≥ 3 of 6 predefined radiological predictors was highly specific for a future diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), comparable to overall expert judgment. • Dedicated CTPA reading for signs of CTEPH may help in early detection of CTEPH after acute pulmonary embolism.

Malin K. Meier ◽  
Till D. Lerch ◽  
Simon D. Steppacher ◽  
Klaus A. Siebenrock ◽  
Moritz Tannast ◽  

Abstract Objectives To compare the prevalence of pre- and postoperative osseous deformities and intra-articular lesions in patients with persistent pain following arthroscopic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) correction and to identify imaging findings associated with progressive cartilage damage. Methods Retrospective study evaluating patients with hip pain following arthroscopic FAI correction between 2010 and 2018. Pre- and postoperative imaging studies were analyzed independently by two blinded readers for osseous deformities (cam-deformity, hip dysplasia, acetabular overcoverage, femoral torsion) and intra-articular lesions (chondro-labral damage, capsular lesions). Prevalence of osseous deformities and intra-articular lesions was compared with paired t-tests/McNemar tests for continuous/dichotomous data. Association between imaging findings and progressive cartilage damage was assessed with logistic regression. Results Forty-six patients (mean age 29 ± 10 years; 30 female) were included. Postoperatively, 74% (34/46) of patients had any osseous deformity including 48% (22/46) acetabular and femoral deformities. Ninety-six percent (44/46) had an intra-articular lesion ranging from 20% (9/46) for femoral to 65% (30/46) for acetabular cartilage lesions. Prevalence of hip dysplasia increased (2 to 20%, p = 0.01) from pre- to postoperatively while prevalence of cam-deformity decreased (83 to 28%, p < 0.001). Progressive cartilage damage was detected in 37% (17/46) of patients and was associated with extensive preoperative cartilage damage > 2 h, i.e., > 60° (OR 7.72; p = 0.02) and an incremental increase in postoperative alpha angles (OR 1.18; p = 0.04). Conclusion Prevalence of osseous deformities secondary to over- or undercorrrection was high. Extensive preoperative cartilage damage and higher postoperative alpha angles increase the risk for progressive degeneration. Key Points • The majority of patients presented with osseous deformities of the acetabulum or femur (74%) and with intra-articular lesions (96%) on postoperative imaging. • Prevalence of hip dysplasia increased (2 to 20%, p = 0.01) from pre- to postoperatively while prevalence of a cam deformity decreased (83 to 28%, p < 0.001). • Progressive cartilage damage was present in 37% of patients and was associated with extensive preoperative cartilage damage > 2 h (OR 7.72; p = 0.02) and with an incremental increase in postoperative alpha angles (OR 1.18; p = 0.04).

Robert Burns ◽  
Sébastien Mulé ◽  
Paul Blanc-Durand ◽  
Mojdeh Tofighi ◽  
Karim Belhadj ◽  

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