Principal Component
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Aziz ◽  
J. Altaf ◽  
A. Ramzan ◽  
Z. Ahmed ◽  
S. U. R. Qamar ◽  

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (7) ◽  
pp. 0-0

The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) algorithm of artificial intelligence (AI) is utilized to predict A+H shares price for helping investors reduce the risk of stock investment. First, the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize BPNN, and a model that can predict multi-day stock prices is established. Then, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm is introduced to improve the GA-BP model, aiming to provide a practical approach for analyzing the market risks of the A+H shares. The experimental results show that for A shares, the model has the best prediction effect on the price of Bank of China (BC), and the average prediction errors of opening price, maximum price, minimum price, as well as closing price are 0.0236, 0.0262, 0.0294 and 0.0339, respectively. For H shares, the model constructed has the best effect on the price prediction of China Merchants Bank (CMB). The average prediction errors of opening price, maximum price, minimum price and closing price are 0.0276, 0.0422, 0.0194 and 0.0619, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Financial status and its role in the national economy have been increasingly recognized. In order to deduce the source of monetary funds and determine their whereabouts, financial information and prediction have become a scientific method that can not be ignored in the development of national economy. This paper improves the existing CNN and applies it to financial credit from different perspectives. Firstly, the noise of the collected data set is deleted, and then the clustering result is more stable by principal component analysis. The observation vectors are segmented to obtain a set of observation vectors corresponding to each hidden state. Based on the output of PCA algorithm, we recalculate the mean and variance of all kinds of observation vectors, and use the new mean and covariance matrix as credit financial credit, and then determine the best model parameters.The empirical results based on specific data from China's stock market show that the improved convolutional neural network proposed in this paper has advantages and the prediction accuracy reaches.

Aline D. A. de L. Marcelino ◽  
Pedro D. Fernandes ◽  
Jean P. C. Ramos ◽  
Wellison F. Dutra ◽  
José J. V. Cavalcanti ◽  

ABSTRACT Two multivariate methods were adopted to classify salt-tolerant cotton genotypes based on their growth and physiological traits. The genotypes were cultivated in a greenhouse and subjected to 45 days of irrigation with saline water from the V4 phase onwards. Irrigation was performed with saline water with electrical conductivity (ECw) of 6.0 dS m-1. A factorial-randomized block design was adopted with nine cultivars, two treatments of ECw (0.6 as the control, and 6.0 dS m-1), and four replicates. Plants were evaluated for growth, gas exchange, and photosynthesis. The data were statistically analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. For the latter, non-hierarchical (principal component, PC) and hierarchical (UPGMA) models were used for the classification of cultivars. Significant differences were found between cultivars based on univariate analyses, and the traits that differed statistically were used for multivariate analyses. Four groups were identified with the same composition in both the PC and UPGMA methods. Among them, one contained the cultivars BRS Seridó, BRS 286, FMT 705, and BRS Rubi, which were tolerant to salt stress imposed on the plants. Photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance data were the main contributors to the classification of cultivars using the principal component method.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Hongzhi Liu ◽  
Jie Luo ◽  
Ying Li ◽  
Zhonghai Wu

Pass selection and phase ordering are two critical compiler auto-tuning problems. Traditional heuristic methods cannot effectively address these NP-hard problems especially given the increasing number of compiler passes and diverse hardware architectures. Recent research efforts have attempted to address these problems through machine learning. However, the large search space of candidate pass sequences, the large numbers of redundant and irrelevant features, and the lack of training program instances make it difficult to learn models well. Several methods have tried to use expert knowledge to simplify the problems, such as using only the compiler passes or subsequences in the standard levels (e.g., -O1, -O2, and -O3) provided by compiler designers. However, these methods ignore other useful compiler passes that are not contained in the standard levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) have been utilized to reduce the redundancy of feature data. However, these unsupervised methods retain all the information irrelevant to the performance of compilation optimization, which may mislead the subsequent model learning. To solve these problems, we propose a compiler pass selection and phase ordering approach, called Iterative Compilation based on Metric learning and Collaborative filtering (ICMC) . First, we propose a data-driven method to construct pass subsequences according to the observed collaborative interactions and dependency among passes on a given program set. Therefore, we can make use of all available compiler passes and prune the search space. Then, a supervised metric learning method is utilized to retain useful feature information for compilation optimization while removing both the irrelevant and the redundant information. Based on the learned similarity metric, a neighborhood-based collaborative filtering method is employed to iteratively recommend a few superior compiler passes for each target program. Last, an iterative data enhancement method is designed to alleviate the problem of lacking training program instances and to enhance the performance of iterative pass recommendations. The experimental results using the LLVM compiler on all 32 cBench programs show the following: (1) ICMC significantly outperforms several state-of-the-art compiler phase ordering methods, (2) it performs the same or better than the standard level -O3 on all the test programs, and (3) it can reach an average performance speedup of 1.20 (up to 1.46) compared with the standard level -O3.

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