This study is designed to assess and identify the status of hospitality training needs, methods and potential challenges within the hospitality industry, in order to recognize gaps and develop training programmes that address and enhance the competitiveness of small businesses within it. A qualitative approach was employed, whereby face-to-face and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 owners and managers of small businesses in the hospitality industry. Using thematic analysis, the study concludes that communication skills, especially foreign languages, are the most the important training need at both managerial and operational levels. Moreover, the study found that on-the-job training is one of the most important training methods. Furthermore, a lack of training budgets is found to be the most critical challenge to training. The study provides empirical evidence and practical implications for decision-makers in the hospitality industry.
This study compares the observations of younger and older generations relating to
different traditional games played by the Kapampangans. It particularly focuses on five
games namely Maro; Tambubung; Luksung Babi; Salikutan; and Barongganan Bola.
These games have been known to emphasise the players’ speed and agility. A survey
and follow up in-depth interviews were used to explore the differing observations and
perspectives of thirty elders (aged 60 years and above) and fifty youngsters (aged 10-
18 years old) from different towns in Pampanga. The survey highlighted the fact that
the majority of the games were now played in the streets compared with the past when
they were played in fields. The follow-up interviews revealed that the terrain of the
towns significantly contributed to the structure and rules of the game, and many
variations were found in the names of the games which were taken from how the
game was played. Further research is recommended to explore the differing
perceptions from the two generations concerning the current status of traditional
games in their community.
Abstract Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds’ trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds’ trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.
Abstract Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.
Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.
An expansive and detailed review of the biology of Caribbean amphibians, considering their threats, conservation and outlook in a changing world. Amphibians are the group of vertebrates undergoing the fastest rate of extinction; it is urgent that we understand the causes of this and find means of protecting them. This landmark illustrated volume brings together the leading experts in the field. As well as offering an overview of the region as a whole, individual chapters are devoted to each island or island-group and the measures used to protect their amphibians through legislation or nature reserves. The biological background of insular biogeography, including its methods, analysis and results, is reviewed and applied specifically to the problems of Caribbean amphibians – this includes a re-examination of patterns and general ideas about the status of amphibians in the Anthropocene. The Conservation and Biogeography of Amphibians in the Caribbean offers an important baseline against which future amphibian conservation can be measured in the face of climate change, rising sea level and a burgeoning human population.
The Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) is one of the most economically active regions in China, where an imbalance between the demand for land and the non-renewable is increasingly prominent. We present the patterns of land use in the YREB, then construct an evaluation index based on the Pressure-State-Response model. The TOPSIS model is used to evaluate sustainable land development in the YREB, and the spatial deductive characteristics of sustainable development levels are analyzed using three aspects: global spatial correlation, local spatial correlation, and regional difference. The results about the YREB show that: (1) The comprehensive sustainable land development score is average, indicating moderate sustainability with a fluctuating upward trend and good prospects. (2) The sustainable development levels of land have strong positive spatial correlation and agglomeration; the agglomeration characteristics follow a pattern similar to that of the status of economic development. (3) Sustainable development levels of land in the provinces and cities show great spatial differences.