Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental
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1415-4366, 1415-4366

Author(s):  
Diemisson O. Nunes ◽  
João H. de S. Favaro ◽  
Hamilton C. de O. Charlo ◽  
Arcângelo Loss ◽  
Antônio C. Barreto ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Special corn is cultivated all year conventionally round; however, its productivity increases when grown under a no-tillage system (NTS). This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of sweet and green corn cultivated under residues of different cover crops and the NTS implantation stages. Two experiments were carried out in the randomized block design, with four replications, in each of the three areas. The experiments consisted of evaluating the sweet and green corn, simultaneously, in three areas at different stages of development of NTS: initial (1 year), transition (7 years), and consolidation (19 years) with six types of cover crops: Signal grass (SG), Pearl millet (PM), Sunn hemp (SH), a mixture of SG + SH, SG + PM, and PM + SH. The dry matter (DM) production of the cover crops, the productivity of husked and unhusked ears, straw, and grain yield were evaluated. The SH had the highest dry mass production among the studied cover crops in all phases of the NTS. The phase of the NTS did not influence the productivity of ears with or without husk in green corn. The cultivation of sweet corn in transition and consolidation areas of the NTS showed better yields when compared to the initial phase of the system.


Author(s):  
Glécio M. Siqueira ◽  
Anderson de A. Souza ◽  
Patrícia M. C. Albuquerque ◽  
Osvaldo Guedes Filho

ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the degree of multifractality of the spatial distribution of altitude, organic carbon concentration, and invertebrate fauna diversity, and to characterize the degree of joint multifractal association among these variables. Soil sampling was performed every 20 m across a 2,540 m transect, with a total of 128 sampling points in a sugarcane area in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State. For each sampling point, the altitude, organic carbon concentration, and macrofauna diversity (diversity indices and functional groups) were evaluated. Spatial distributions of altitude, organic carbon concentration, and macrofauna diversity were characterized by the generalized dimension spectrum (Dq) and singularity spectrums [f(α) versus α], which presented multifractal behavior with different degrees of heterogeneity in scales. Joint multifractal analysis was useful for revealing the relationships at multiple scales between the studied variables, as demonstrated by the non-detected associations using traditional statistical methods. To quantify the spatial variability of edaphic fauna based on the multiple scales and association sets in the joint dimension, the impact of agricultural production systems on biological diversity can be described. All of the studied variables displayed a multifractal behavior with greater or lower heterogeneity degree depending on the variable, with altitude and organic carbon being the most homogeneous attributes.


Author(s):  
Edna M. Bonfim-Silva ◽  
Tulio Martinez-Santos ◽  
Tonny J. A. da Silva ◽  
Rackel D. de S. Alves ◽  
Everton A. R. Pinheiro ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Subsurface soil compaction and nutritional stress are among the main factors that limit the yield of crops. Using forest residues, such as wood ash, is a viable option in the chemical recovery of soils and can promote vigorous root development in soils with subsurface compaction. The objective of this study was to indicate the most adequate dose of wood ash for efficient management of this residue applied in rotational crops cultivated in soils with subsurface compaction. Safflower plants (Carthamus tinctorius), a rotational crop with a deep taproot system, were grown in clay soil fertilized with different doses of ash and with induced levels of compaction in the subsurface layer. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, under a 4 × 5 factorial scheme, composed of four doses of wood ash (8.0, 16.0, 24.0, and 32.0 g dm-3) and five levels of soil bulk density (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 kg dm-3), with four replicates. Crop growth variables (plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, and SPAD chlorophyll index) were evaluated at 15, 45, and 75 days after emergence. The results indicated that soil compaction was the most limiting factor to the vegetative development of safflower, regardless of the ash dose. The interaction between the wood ash dose and bulk density, when present, showed that the best growth response occurred for ash dose of 25 g dm-3 for a soil bulk density of 1.2 kg dm-3.


Author(s):  
Wendy K. Matsunaga ◽  
Vicente de P. R. da Silva ◽  
Victória P. Amorim ◽  
Eliton S. G. Sales ◽  
Sílvia M. Dantas ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine crop evapotranspiration through the soil water balance, the crop coefficient and water use efficiency of the onion (Allium cepa L.) in a system with four irrigation regimes, cultivated in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Two field experiments were carried out during the rainy and dry periods of the region in 2018, using the treatments of 100% (T1), 75% (T2), 50% (T3) and 25% (T4) of the reference evapotranspiration for daily water replacement and five replicates for each treatment. It was verified that crop evapotranspiration varies according to the water availability in the soil; however, the highest water use efficiency occurred for the T3 treatment. The T1 treatment obtained the highest estimated yield, 43.86 tons ha-1, while T4 obtained 13.47 tons ha-1, the lowest estimated yield among the treatments, and this difference was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) by F test. The crop coefficients obtained were 0.68, 0.89, 0.99 and 0.73 for the initial, vegetative, bulbing and maturation stages, respectively.


Author(s):  
Daniel de A. Carreiro ◽  
Renata A. e Amariz ◽  
Luciana G. Sanches ◽  
Jackson T. Lobo ◽  
Vespasiano B. de Paiva Neto ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the application of fenpropimorph and paclobutrazol on gas exchanges and photosynthetic pigments of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango grown in the semi-arid region in different evaluation periods. Two experiments were carried out in ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango orchards in the first production cycle between September and December 2018 (first experiment) and between September and December 2019 (second experiment) in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in split plots in time, 4 × 4 + 1, with four replicates. The plots corresponded to the concentrations of fenpropimorph: 0, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 g per linear meter of plant canopy diameter plus the additional paclobutrazol treatment (1 g per linear meter of plant canopy diameter), and the subplots corresponded to the evaluation dates (0, 30, 60, and 90 days after the first application of treatments). The following traits were evaluated: CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, water use efficiency, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids. The fenpropimorph dose of 1.3 g per linear meter of plant canopy promotes a higher rate of CO2 assimilation; however, paclobutrazol was more effective in the accumulation of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, and the use of fenpropimorph did not interfere in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments.


Author(s):  
Ana P. da Silva ◽  
Ricardo F. Marques ◽  
Antônio C. da Silva Junior ◽  
Sidnei R. de Marchi ◽  
Dagoberto Martins

ABSTRACT Information about the impact of herbicides in the soil based on the growth of bioindicator species is extremely useful in developing crop management strategies. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the leaching potential of the herbicide S-metolachlor under different natural precipitations in medium-textured Oxisol using bioindicator plants. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with four replicates and treatments arranged in a 3 × 8 factorial scheme [three indexes of precipitation occurred in the environment before the collection of the samples (50, 91, and 131 mm) and eight depths in the soil profile (0-0.03; 0.03-0.06; 0.06-0.09; 0.09-0.12; 0.12-0.15; 0.15-0.20; 0.20-0.25; 0.25-0.30 m)]. PVC columns were used, maintaining the original soil integrity during sampling after accumulating the stipulated natural precipitation. Longitudinal sections separated the columns to sow the bioindicator species (cucumber, lettuce, Alexander grass, and sorghum). The phytotoxicity symptoms of bioindicator plants were evaluated, adopting a phytotoxicity visual scale between 0 and 100%, at 5, 7, 9, and 11 days after seeding. The responses of the bioindicator species to the residual effect of the herbicide S-metolachlor were variable and depended on the rainfall level. Generally, in a medium-textured Oxisol, the higher values of concentration of S-metolachlor occurs in depths ranging between 0 and 0.06 m. The maximum leaching depth detected was 0.12-0.15 m with 131 mm of precipitation. Cucumber was the most sensitive species to the presence of S-metolachlor in an Oxisol of medium-texture since it presents symptoms of phytotoxicity at higher depths.


Author(s):  
Darlaine M. Ferreira ◽  
Tiyoko N. H. Rebouças ◽  
Risely Ferraz-Almeida ◽  
John S. Porto ◽  
Roberta C. Oliveira ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Organomineral fertilizer has great potential to replace synthetic fertilizers. The goal of this study was to determine an optimal substitution rate of organomineral fertilizer for mineral fertilizer to increase potato yield and quality. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and six treatments, namely four substitution rates of organomineral fertilizer application (25, 50, 75, and 100% of mineral fertilizer demand), one rate of mineral fertilizer application (100% of mineral fertilizer demand), and the control (no fertilizer application). The organomineral application rates were tested as an alternative to substitute 25 to 100% of mineral fertilizer. The potato yield (total and in-class) and quality and plant and soil nutrient contents were monitored. The pH and total soluble solid contents had positive correlations with yield. Potatoes accumulated higher contents of K > N > P in the leaves, stems, and tubers. The organomineral fertilizer application rate of 3.7 t ha-1 (equivalent to 100% of mineral fertilizer demand) was the optimal rate to increase potato yield and quality. Organomineral fertilizer is a viable alternative to increase potato quality and yield and to increase plant and soil nutrient contents.


Author(s):  
Itamar R. Teixeira ◽  
Paulo R. Lopes ◽  
Westefann S. Sousa ◽  
Gisele C. da S. Teixeira

ABSTRACT The response capacity of the bean to fix atmospheric nitrogen is questionable, mainly due to its inability to supply all the nitrogen in the flowering and grain filling phases when the crop needs it most. Thus, a new application of inoculant can keep the population of rhizobia in the soil at adequate levels, meeting all the nitrogen demands of the plant. This study aimed to investigate the nodulation capacity and the production of beans submitted to doses and reinoculation of Rhizobium in topdressing under field conditions in two growth stages. For this, an experiment was conducted using a randomized block design with four replicates in a 4 × 2 + 2 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of the application of four doses of liquid inoculant containing Rhizobium tropici (SEMIA 4088), in the concentration 2 × 109 CFU g-1, in topdressing (0, 100, 200 and 400 mL ha-1), in two development stages (V4 and R5) of plants, and two additional treatments (inoculation via seed at a dose of 100 g of the product per 50 kg of seeds and mineral nitrogen fertilization at a dose of 16 kg ha-1 applied at sowing and 60 kg ha-1 in topdressing, divided into two stages, with half being applied at the stage V3 and the other half in V4 stage).The inoculant application increased the nodulation rates of bean cultivar BRS Cometa and the dry biomass produced by plants, using doses of 232 and 221 mL ha-1, respectively. The dose of 257mL ha-1 of the liquid inoculant applied in topdressing at the V4 stage, and the inoculation via seed provide greater common bean yield without supplementing mineral nitrogen.


Author(s):  
Eder A. S. Sá ◽  
Ildegardis Bertol ◽  
Silvio L. Rafaeli Neto ◽  
Daiane T. Schier

ABSTRACT Water erosion is influenced by climate, soil, soil cover and soil conservation practices. These factors can be modified by natural (especially climate) and/or anthropogenic (especially soil, soil cover and conservation practices) actions. The relief factor also influences the water erosion and can also be partially modified by anthropic action. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic action due to the introduction of soil crop in no-tillage system on water erosion, and on the consequent flow of sediments in the water. The study was carried out in the Marombas river basin with an area of 3,939 km², using the Soil Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) model. The calibration and validation of the model for sediment production was carried out with a historical series of synthetic data. The data from this series were estimated by linear regression from sediment value load and the average daily flow obtained punctually in the basin’s outlet. The SWAT model was calibrated on a daily scale with data from 1979 to 1989 and was validated with data from 1994 and 1997. The SWAT model was suitable to represent the average daily flow and sediment flow in the Marombas watershed. The hypothesis of reduced sediment production with increasing soil crop in no-tillage system was accepted.


Author(s):  
Jéssica L. O. Brasileiro ◽  
Rossana M. F. de Figueirêdo ◽  
Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz ◽  
Regilane M. Feitosa

ABSTRACT Fruit pulps undergo temperature variations during processing, leading to viscosity changes. This study aimed to analyse the rheological behaviour of macaíba pulp at different temperatures (10 to 50 ºC, with 5 ºC increments) and speeds (2.5 to 200 rpm, totalling 17 speeds). Experimental measurements were performed in a Brookfield viscometer, fitting the Ostwald-de-Waele, Mizrahi-Berk, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson models to the experimental data of shear stress as a function of shear rate. Among the models used, the Mizrahi-Berk model (R² > 0.9656 and average percentage deviation - P ≤ 4.1%) was found to best fit the rheogram data. Macaíba pulp exhibited a non-newtonian behaviour and was characterised as pseudoplastic. It showed fluid behaviour indexes below unity under the studied conditions, with decreases in apparent viscosity as temperature and shear rate increased. Such behaviour could be described by the Arrhenius equation. The Mizrahi-Berk and Falguera-Ibarz models (R² > 0.99 and P ≤ 10%) best fitted the data and were used to represent the viscosity behaviour of macaíba pulp. The activation energy values of macaíba pulp ranged between 17.53 and 25.37 kJ mol-1, showing a rheological behaviour like other fruit pulps.


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