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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Yantao Li ◽  
Peng Tao ◽  
Shaojiang Deng ◽  
Gang Zhou

Smartphones have become crucial and important in our daily life, but the security and privacy issues have been major concerns of smartphone users. In this article, we present DeFFusion, a CNN-based continuous authentication system using Deep Feature Fusion for smartphone users by leveraging the accelerometer and gyroscope ubiquitously built into smartphones. With the collected data, DeFFusion first converts the time domain data into frequency domain data using the fast Fourier transform and then inputs both of them into a designed CNN, respectively. With the CNN-extracted features, DeFFusion conducts the feature selection utilizing factor analysis and exploits balanced feature concatenation to fuse these deep features. Based on the one-class SVM classifier, DeFFusion authenticates current users as a legitimate user or an impostor. We evaluate the authentication performance of DeFFusion in terms of impact of training data size and time window size, accuracy comparison on different features over different classifiers and on different classifiers with the same CNN-extracted features, accuracy on unseen users, time efficiency, and comparison with representative authentication methods. The experimental results demonstrate that DeFFusion has the best accuracy by achieving the mean equal error rate of 1.00% in a 5-second time window size.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Fei Wen ◽  
Mian Qin ◽  
Paul Gratz ◽  
Narasimha Reddy

Hybrid memory systems, comprised of emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) and DRAM, have been proposed to address the growing memory demand of current mobile applications. Recently emerging NVM technologies, such as phase-change memories (PCM), memristor, and 3D XPoint, have higher capacity density, minimal static power consumption and lower cost per GB. However, NVM has longer access latency and limited write endurance as opposed to DRAM. The different characteristics of distinct memory classes render a new challenge for memory system design. Ideally, pages should be placed or migrated between the two types of memories according to the data objects’ access properties. Prior system software approaches exploit the program information from OS but at the cost of high software latency incurred by related kernel processes. Hardware approaches can avoid these latencies, however, hardware’s vision is constrained to a short time window of recent memory requests, due to the limited on-chip resources. In this work, we propose OpenMem: a hardware-software cooperative approach that combines the execution time advantages of pure hardware approaches with the data object properties in a global scope. First, we built a hardware-based memory manager unit (HMMU) that can learn the short-term access patterns by online profiling, and execute data migration efficiently. Then, we built a heap memory manager for the heterogeneous memory systems that allows the programmer to directly customize each data object’s allocation to a favorable memory device within the presumed object life cycle. With the programmer’s hints guiding the data placement at allocation time, data objects with similar properties will be congregated to reduce unnecessary page migrations. We implemented the whole system on the FPGA board with embedded ARM processors. In testing under a set of benchmark applications from SPEC 2017 and PARSEC, experimental results show that OpenMem reduces 44.6% energy consumption with only a 16% performance degradation compared to the all-DRAM memory system. The amount of writes to the NVM is reduced by 14% versus the HMMU-only, extending the NVM device lifetime.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 446
Michał Gębka ◽  
Anna Bajer-Czajkowska ◽  
Sandra Pyza ◽  
Krzysztof Safranow ◽  
Wojciech Poncyljusz ◽  

Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of collaterals on the evolution of hypodensity on non-contrast CT (NCCT) in anterior circulation stroke with reperfusion by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Methods: We retrospectively included stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion who were reperfused by MT in early and late time window. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based software was used to calculate of hypodensity volumes at baseline NCCT (V1) and at follow-up NCCT 24 h after MT (V2), along with the difference between the two volumes (V2-V1) and the follow-up (V2)/baseline (V1) volume ratio (V2/V1). The same software was used to classify collateral status by using a 4-point scale where the score of zero indicated no collaterals and the score of three represented contrast filling of all collaterals. The volumetric values were correlated with the collateral scores. Results: Collateral scores had significant negative correlation with V1 (p = 0.035), V2, V2− V1 and V2/V1 (p < 0.001). In cases with collateral score = 3, V2 was significantly smaller or absent compared to V1; in those with collateral score 2, V2 was slightly larger than V1, and in those with scores 1 and 0 V2 was significantly larger than V1. These relationships were observed in both early and late time windows. Conclusions: The collateral status determined the evolution of the baseline hypodensity on NCCT in patients with anterior circulation stroke who had MT reperfusion. Damage can be stable or reversible in patients with good collaterals while in those with poor collaterals tissues that initially appear normal will frequently appear as necrotic after 24 h. With good collaterals, it is stable or can be reversible while with poor collaterals, normal looking tissue frequently appears as necrotic in follow-up exam. Hence, acute hypodensity represents different states of the ischemic brain parenchyma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Shoma Hattori ◽  
Shinji Nozue ◽  
Yoshiaki Ihara ◽  
Koji Takahashi

AbstractTo evaluate the expiratory sounds produced during swallowing recorded simultaneously with videofluorographic examination of swallowing (VF) using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and to examine the relationship between dysphagia and its acoustic characteristics. A total of 348 samples of expiratory sounds were collected from 61 patients with dysphagia whose expiratory sounds were recorded during VF. The VF results were evaluated by one dentist and categorized into three groups: safe group (SG), penetration group (PG), and aspiration group (AG). The duration and maximum amplitude of expiratory sounds produced were measured as the domain characteristics on the time waveform of these sounds and compared among the groups. Time window-length appropriate for FFT and acoustic discriminate values (AD values) of SG, PG, and AG were also investigated. The groups were analyzed using analysis of variance and Scheffé's multiple comparison method. The maximum amplitude of SG was significantly smaller than those of PG and AG. The mean duration in SG (2.05 s) was significantly longer than those in PG (0.84 s) and AG (0.96 s). The AD value in SG was significantly lower than those in PG and AG. AD value detects penetration or aspiration, and can be useful in screening for dysphagia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Shuang Geng ◽  
Nicola Molinaro ◽  
Polina Timofeeva ◽  
Ileana Quiñones ◽  
Manuel Carreiras ◽  

AbstractWords representing objects (nouns) and words representing actions (verbs) are essential components of speech across languages. While there is evidence regarding the organizational principles governing neural representation of nouns and verbs in monolingual speakers, little is known about how this knowledge is represented in the bilingual brain. To address this gap, we recorded neuromagnetic signals while highly proficient Spanish–Basque bilinguals performed a picture-naming task and tracked the brain oscillatory dynamics underlying this process. We found theta (4–8 Hz) power increases and alpha–beta (8–25 Hz) power decreases irrespectively of the category and language at use in a time window classically associated to the controlled retrieval of lexico-semantic information. When comparing nouns and verbs within each language, we found theta power increases for verbs as compared to nouns in bilateral visual cortices and cognitive control areas including the left SMA and right middle temporal gyrus. In addition, stronger alpha–beta power decreases were observed for nouns as compared to verbs in visual cortices and semantic-related regions such as the left anterior temporal lobe and right premotor cortex. No differences were observed between categories across languages. Overall, our results suggest that noun and verb processing recruit partially different networks during speech production but that these category-based representations are similarly processed in the bilingual brain.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Lan Hong ◽  
Tzu-Ming Hsu ◽  
Yiran Zhang ◽  
Xin Cheng

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication of acute ischemic stroke, often resulting from reperfusion therapy. Early prediction of HT can enable stroke neurologists to undertake measures to avoid clinical deterioration and make optimal treatment strategies. Moreover, the trend of extending the time window for reperfusion therapy (both for intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment) further requires more precise detection of HT tendency. <b><i>Summary:</i></b> In this review, we summarized and discussed the neuroimaging markers of HT prediction of acute ischemic stroke patients, mainly focusing on neuroimaging markers of ischemic degree and neuroimaging markers of blood-brain barrier permeability. This review is aimed to provide a concise introduction of HT prediction and to elicit possibilities of future research combining advanced technology to improve the accessibility and accuracy of HT prediction under emergent clinical settings. <b><i>Key Messages:</i></b> Substantial studies have utilized neuroimaging, blood biomarkers, and clinical variables to predict HT occurrence. Although huge progress has been made, more individualized and precise HT prediction using simple and robust imaging predictors combining stroke onset time should be the future goal of development.

2022 ◽  
Lindsey Wang ◽  
Nathan A Berger ◽  
David C Kaelber ◽  
Pamela B Davis ◽  
Nora D Volkow ◽  

Abstract Importance Pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospitalizations are rising in the US and other countries after the emergence of Omicron variant. However data on disease severity from Omicron compared with Delta in children under 5 in the US is lacking. Objectives To compare severity of clinic outcomes in children under 5 who contracted COVID infection for the first time before and after the emergence of Omicron in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data of 79,592 children under 5 who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection for the first time, including 7,201 infected when the Omicron predominated (Omicron cohort), 63,203 infected when the Omicron predominated (Delta cohort), and another 9,188 infected when the Omicron predominated but immediately before the Omicron variant was detected in the US (Delta-2 cohort). Exposures First time infection of SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures After propensity-score matching, severity of COVID infections including emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and mechanical ventilation use in the 3-day time-window following SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared between Omicron and Delta cohorts, and between Delta-2 and Delta cohorts. Risk ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Among 7,201 infected children in the Omicron cohort (average age of 1.49 years), 47.4% were female, 2.4% Asian, 26.1% Black, 13.7% Hispanic, and 44.0% White. Before propensity score matching, the Omicron cohort were younger than the Delta cohort (average age 1.49 vs 1.73 years), comprised of more Black children, and had fewer comorbidities. After propensity-score matching for demographics, socio-economic determinants of health, comorbidities and medications, risks for severe clinical outcomes in the Omicron cohort were significantly lower than those in the Delta cohort: ED visits: 18.83% vs. 26.67% (risk ratio or RR: 0.71 [0.66-0.75]); hospitalizations: 1.04% vs. 3.14% (RR: 0.33 [0.26-0.43]); ICU admissions: 0.14% vs. 0.43% (RR: 0.32 [0.16-0.66]); mechanical ventilation: 0.33% vs. 1.15% (RR: 0.29 [0.18-0.46]). Control studies comparing Delta-2 to Delta cohorts show no difference. Conclusions and Relevance For children under age 5, first time SARS-CoV-2 infections occurring when the Omicron predominated (prevalence >92%) was associated with significantly less severe outcomes than first-time infections in similar children when the Delta variant predominated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Dongqing Luan ◽  
Along Liu ◽  
Xiaoli Wang ◽  
Yanxi Xie ◽  
Zhong Wu

Disaster medical rescue in China mainly adopts the “on-site rescue” model. Whether the location of emergency temporary blood supply sites is reasonable or not directly affects the rescue efficiency. The paper studies the robust location-allocation for emergency temporary blood supply after disaster. First, the factors of several candidate sites were quantified by the entropy-based TOPSIS method, and 12 candidate blood supply sites with higher priority were selected according to the evaluation indicators. At the same time, the uncertainty of blood demand at each disaster site increased the difficulty of decision-making, and then, a robust location model (MIRP) was constructed with minimum cost with time window constraints. It is also constrained by the uncertain demand for blood in three scenarios. Second, the survival probability function was introduced, and the time window limit was given at the minimum cost to maximize the survival probability of the suffered people. Finally, the numerical example experiments demonstrate that the increase in demand uncertainty and survival probability cause the MIRP model to generate more costs. Compared with the three MIRP models, the MIRP-ellipsoid set model gained better robustness. Also, given the necessary restrictions on the time window, the cost can be reduced by about 13% with the highest survival probability. Decision-makers can select different combinations of uncertainty levels and demand disturbance ratios and necessary time constraints to obtain the optimal location-allocation solution according to risk preference and actual conditions.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 248
Benjamin Lacroix ◽  
Julien Dumont

During cell division, the mitotic spindle, a macromolecular structure primarily comprised of microtubules, drives chromosome alignment and partitioning between daughter cells. Mitotic spindles can sense cellular dimensions in order to adapt their length and mass to cell size. This scaling capacity is particularly remarkable during early embryo cleavage when cells divide rapidly in the absence of cell growth, thus leading to a reduction of cell volume at each division. Although mitotic spindle size scaling can occur over an order of magnitude in early embryos, in many species the duration of mitosis is relatively short, constant throughout early development and independent of cell size. Therefore, a key challenge for cells during embryo cleavage is not only to assemble a spindle of proper size, but also to do it in an appropriate time window which is compatible with embryo development. How spatial and temporal scaling of the mitotic spindle is achieved and coordinated with the duration of mitosis remains elusive. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms that support mitotic spindle spatial and temporal scaling over a wide range of cell sizes and cellular contexts. We will present current models and propose alternative mechanisms allowing cells to spatially and temporally coordinate microtubule and mitotic spindle assembly.

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