bioactive substances
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Aziz ◽  
J. Altaf ◽  
A. Ramzan ◽  
Z. Ahmed ◽  
S. U. R. Qamar ◽  

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 518
Ewelina Kultys ◽  
Marcin Andrzej Kurek

Carotenoids are characterized by a wide range of health-promoting properties. For example, they support the immune system and wound healing process and protect against UV radiation’s harmful effects. Therefore, they are used in the food industry and cosmetics, animal feed, and pharmaceuticals. The main sources of carotenoids are the edible and non-edible parts of fruit and vegetables. Therefore, the extraction of bioactive substances from the by-products of vegetable and fruit processing can greatly reduce food waste. This article describes the latest methods for the extraction of carotenoids from fruit and vegetable byproducts, such as solvent-free extraction—which avoids the costs and risks associated with the use of petrochemical solvents, reduces the impact on the external environment, and additionally increases the purity of the extract—or green extraction using ultrasound and microwaves, which enables a significant improvement in process efficiency and reduction in extraction time. Another method is supercritical extraction with CO2, an ideal supercritical fluid that is non-toxic, inexpensive, readily available, and easily removable from the product, with a high penetration capacity.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 329
Xixi Wang ◽  
Liping Zhang ◽  
Ling Qin ◽  
Yanfeng Wang ◽  
Fushan Chen ◽  

Laminaria japonica is a large marine brown alga that is annually highly productive. However, due to its underutilization, its potential value is substantially wasted. For example, a lot of Laminaria japonica cellulose remains unused during production of algin. The soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared from the byproducts of Laminaria japonica, and its physicochemical properties were explored. SDF exhibits good water-holding, oil-holding, water-absorbing swelling, glucose and cholesterol absorption capacity, and inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In addition, the beneficial effects of SDF in diabetic mice include reduced body weight, lower blood glucose, and relieved insulin resistance. Finally, the intestinal flora and metabolomic products were analyzed from feces using 16S amplicon and LC-MS/MS, respectively. SDF not only significantly changed the composition and structure of intestinal flora and intestinal metabolites, but also significantly increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria Akkermansia, Odoribacter and Bacteroides, decreased the abundance of harmful bacteria Staphylococcus, and increased the content of bioactive substances in intestinal tract, such as harmine, magnolol, arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E2, urimorelin and azelaic acid. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary intake of SDF alleviates type 2 diabetes mellitus disease, and provides an important theoretical basis for SDF to be used as a functional food.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Sarah Geahchan ◽  
Parnian Baharlouei ◽  
Muhammed Azizur Rahman

Marine organisms harbor numerous bioactive substances that can be utilized in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Scientific research on various applications of collagen extracted from these organisms has become increasingly prevalent. Marine collagen can be used as a biomaterial because it is water soluble, metabolically compatible, and highly accessible. Upon review of the literature, it is evident that marine collagen is a versatile compound capable of healing skin injuries of varying severity, as well as delaying the natural human aging process. From in vitro to in vivo experiments, collagen has demonstrated its ability to invoke keratinocyte and fibroblast migration as well as vascularization of the skin. Additionally, marine collagen and derivatives have proven beneficial and useful for both osteoporosis and osteoarthritis prevention and treatment. Other bone-related diseases may also be targeted by collagen, as it is capable of increasing bone mineral density, mineral deposition, and importantly, osteoblast maturation and proliferation. In this review, we demonstrate the advantages of marine collagen over land animal sources and the biomedical applications of marine collagen related to bone and skin damage. Finally, some limitations of marine collagen are briefly discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Cinzia Benincasa ◽  
Massimiliano Pellegrino ◽  
Elvira Romano ◽  
Salvatore Claps ◽  
Carmelo Fallara ◽  

The processing of olives for oil production generates the most abundant agro-industrial by-products in the Mediterranean area. The three-phase olive oil extraction process requires the addition of a large amount of water to the system, which is difficult to dispose of for its load of toxic pollutants. On the other hand, olive mill wastewater is a rich source of bioactive substances with various biological properties that can be used as ingredients in the food industry for obtaining functional and nutraceutical foods as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we present the results relative to the phenolic compounds detected in dried olive mill wastewaters obtained using a spray dryer. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). In particular, the compounds here discussed are: apigenin (9.55 mg/kg dry weight), caffeic acid (2.89 mg/kg dry weight), catecol (6.12 mg/kg dry weight), p-cumaric acid (5.01 mg/kg dry weight), diosmetin (3.58 mg/kg dry weight), hydroxytyrosol (1.481 mg/kg dry weight), hydroxytyrosyl oleate (564 mg/kg dry weight), luteolin (62.38 mg/kg dry weight), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (88.55 mg/kg dry weight), luteolin-4-O-glucoside (11.48 mg/kg dry weight), oleuropein (103 mg/kg dry weight), rutin (48.52 mg/kg dry weight), tyrosol (2043 mg/kg dry weight), vanillin (27.70 mg/kg dry weight), and verbascoside (700 mg/kg dry weight). The results obtained highlighted that the use of dehumidified air as a drying medium, with the addition of maltodextrin, appears to be an effective way to produce a phenol-rich powder to be included in food formulations as well as in pharmaceutical preparations having different biological properties.

Xu Zhang ◽  
Xin-Yi Liu ◽  
Hao Yang ◽  
Jiang-Nan Chen ◽  
Ying Lin ◽  

Bioactive substances (BAS), such as small molecule drugs, proteins, RNA, cells, etc., play a vital role in many therapeutic applications, especially in tissue repair and regeneration. However, the therapeutic effect is still a challenge due to the uncontrollable release and instable physico-chemical properties of bioactive components. To address this, many biodegradable carrier systems of micro-nano structures have been rapidly developed based on different biocompatible polymers including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), the microbial synthesized polyesters, to provide load protection and controlled-release of BAS. We herein highlight the developments of PHA-based carrier systems in recent therapeutic studies, and give an overview of its prospective applications in various disease treatments. Specifically, the biosynthesis and material properties of diverse PHA polymers, designs and fabrication of micro- and nano-structure PHA particles, as well as therapeutic studies based on PHA particles, are summarized to give a comprehensive landscape of PHA-based BAS carriers and applications thereof. Moreover, recent efforts focusing on novel-type BAS nano-carriers, the functionalized self-assembled PHA granules in vivo, was discussed in this review, proposing the underlying innovations of designs and fabrications of PHA-based BAS carriers powered by synthetic biology. This review outlines a promising and applicable BAS carrier platform of novelty based on PHA particles for different medical uses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Wenjie Zhang ◽  
Juan Xing ◽  
Tian Liu ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Zhujiang Dai ◽  

AbstractPancreatic cancer is a highly malignant tumor and, is extremely difficult to diagnose and treat. Metastasis is one of the critical steps in the development of cancer and uses cell to cell communication to mediate changes in the microenvironment. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs)-carry proteins, nucleic acids and other bioactive substances, and are important medium for communication between cells. There are two primary steps in sVEs-mediated metastasis: communication between pancreatic cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironment; and the communication between primary tumor cells and distant organ cells in distant organs that promotes angiogenesis, reshaping extracellular matrix, forming immunosuppressive environment and other ways to form appropriate pre-metastasis niche. Here, we explore the mechanism of localization and metastasis of pancreatic cancer and use sEVs as early biomarkers for the detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e2611124142
Anderson Ribeiro dos Santos ◽  
Alexia Mota Santos ◽  
Fernando Henrique Oliveira de Almeida ◽  
Vinícius Freitas Arcieri de Medeiros ◽  
Saulo Santos Matos ◽  

Repellents are important allies in trying to prevent diseases transmitted by mosquito bites. Plants have been a source of various repellents and insecticides because they have a large reservoir of bioactive substances, in addition, their products have already been tested and are gaining space in research as a low-cost and easy-access alternative. A systematic review was carried out in the databases, Science Direct, Scielo, SciFinder, Springer, PubMed / Medline, Scopus and Web of Science, evaluated by three reviewers. Titles, abstracts and articles were analyzed in full in English, Spanish and Portuguese. To identify the articles, the following descriptors from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were used: “insect repellents”, “essential oils”, “plants extract”, “repellent activity”, mosquitoes and plants. The bibliographic search resulted in 2274 records. Of these, 27 abstracts were considered potentially relevant, and at the end of the selection, 17 articles were included in their entirety. It was found that medicinal plants showed repellent activity against various species of mosquitoes, however due to the little standardization of the methodologies used and the products obtained it is necessary to develop standardized methods to guarantee the quality and reproducibility of clinical trials with medicinal plants.

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