Basic Concepts
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2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 24-36
Author(s):  
A. D. Alendar ◽  
A. N. Grunin ◽  
M. V. Siluyanova

The work contains the results of a study of the basic design concepts of advanced engines for supersonic civil aircraft, carried out in order to make a forecast for the development of aviation technology, taking into account the experience of foreign designers. Engine designs are presented that are considered to be the most rational ones from the point of view of achieving high technical and economic parameters in the range of cruise Mach numbers from 1.2 to 5. Advantages and disadvantages of various engine designs, as well as issues of engine regulation at different flight modes, are discussed. The parameters of some engines being developed and studied at present for supersonic civil aircraft are presented. The analysis of the designs shows that an increase in the cruise Mach number leads to a complication of engine designs in the direction of an increase in the number of controlled elements, the number of working fluid flow paths, a complication of the architecture of turbomachines, as well as in the direction of using combined schemes and alternative fuels. The aspiration to meet new reinforced ecological requirements through the use of new, complex engine designs that differ significantly from traditional gas turbine engines will inevitably entail additional technical risks due to the insufficient level of technological readiness of most of the new controlled units.


Bosniaca ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (26) ◽  
pp. 9-27
Author(s):  
Anita Katulić ◽  
Ana Barbarić

Cilj rada je prikazati ulogu pismenosti iz privatnosti kao relativno novog koncepta u prevladavanju digitalnog jaza, povezati prevladavanje digitalnog jaza s ulogom knjižnica u postizanju više razine kritičke informacijske pismenosti, te smjestiti digitalnu uključenost i pismenost iz privatnosti u širi teorijski okvir. U tu svrhu u radu se istražuju ishodišni pojmovi društvene isključenosti i društvene uključenosti, digitalne podjele i digitalne uključenosti. Zatim, razmatra se uloga kritičke informacijske pismenosti u informacijskom društvu i tzv. “društvu platformi” te se naznačuje uloga knjižnica u opismenjavanju iz područja privatnosti s ciljem smanjenja digitalnog jaza i povećanja digitalne uključenosti. Digitalni jaz jedna je od najvećih prepreka društvu znanja, a isključenost iz informacijskog društva predstavlja problem svjetskih razmjera. U radu se objasnilo kako su knjižnice prikladna mjesta za borbu protiv društvene izoliranosti te imaju važnu ulogu u jačanju društvene kohezije. Također se prikazalo kako su ljudi s nižim razinama obrazovanja, kao i oni s nižim primanjima, više izloženi riziku digitalne isključenosti, a pomoć u izlazu iz takvog problema može se naći u opismenjavanju iz područja privatnosti. = The aim of this paper is to present the role of privacy literacy as a relatively new concept in bridging the digital divide, to link the bridging of the digital divide with the role of libraries in achieving a higher level of critical information literacy, and to place digital inclusion and privacy literacy in a broader theoretical framework. For this purpose, the paper researches the basic concepts of social exclusion and social inclusion, digital divide and digital inclusion. Furthermore, the role of critical information literacy in the information society and the so-called platform society is taken into consideration; and the role of libraries in privacy literacy is indicated, with the aim of reducing the digital divide and increasing digital inclusion. The digital divide is one of the biggest obstacles to the knowledge society, and exclusion from the information society is a global problem. The paper explains that libraries are suitable places to combat social isolation and that they play an important role in strengthening social cohesion. It has also been shown that people with lower levels of education, as well as those with lower incomes, are more at risk of digital exclusion, while help in getting out of such a problem can be found in privacy literacy.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ladzina Shafira Zahra ◽  
◽  
Audita Setiawan ◽  

The purpose of this study is to empirically prove the differences in understanding. The formulation of the problem is to empirically prove whether there are differences in the understanding of students from high school with a science major and high school majoring in social studies on the basic concepts of accounting. The basic concept of accounting in this study uses the variables of assets, liabilities, and capital. This research was conducted at a private university in West Java. The data is primary data, and the data collection technique is using a questionnaire. The population and sample in this study were 52 students majoring in accounting for the 2019-2020 class based on certain criteria. The data analysis technique of this research is descriptive statistical analysis, using validity, reliability and Kruskal Wallis difference test with IBM SPSS Statistics version 23 to measure the level of understanding of students from high school majoring in science and high school majoring in social studies on the basic concepts of accounting. The results of this study stated that only the variable Capital (Equity) had a significant difference in understanding between students from high school majoring in science and high school majoring in social studies. Where the other two variables, namely Assets and Liabilities, show that there is no significant difference in understanding between students from Senior High School from the Science Department and Senior High School from the Social Sciences Department.


Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1649
Author(s):  
Diana Antonia Iordăchescu ◽  
Florinda Tinella Golu ◽  
Corina Ioana Paica ◽  
Adrian Gorbănescu ◽  
Anca Maria Panaitescu ◽  
...  

The doctor–patient relationship is fundamental in the treatment of infertility, due to the emotional implications of fertilization procedures. However, insufficient data are available specifically for this relationship. The general objective of the study is to establish the associations between the fundamental concepts that define the doctor–patient relationship: communication, empathy, trust, collaboration, compliance and satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June 2020 and followed the methods of a quantitative analysis, collecting the data using questionnaires. The research plan was specific to path analysis with the mediation effect, in which the hypotheses were tested. The research group consisted of 151 women diagnosed with infertility, voluntarily recruited through online support communities. Findings demonstrate that affective empathy mediates the relationship between communication and trust in the doctor. In conclusion, this study draws attention to the importance of basic concepts in the relationship of infertility specialists with infertile patients. Thus, it is necessary for health care providers in assisted human reproduction to participate in programs for the continuous training of empathic communication skills, given the sensitivity of this diagnosis.


Author(s):  
Makoto Ihara

Abstract The Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (Cys-loop receptors) is one of the most ubiquitous ion channel families in vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite their ubiquity, they are targeted by several classes of pesticides, including neonicotinoids, phenylpyrazols, and macrolides such as ivermectins. The current commercialized compounds have high target site selectivity, which contributes to the safety of insecticide use. Structural analyses have accelerated progress in this field; notably, the X-ray crystal structures of acetylcholine binding protein and glutamate-gated Cl channels revealed the details of the molecular interactions between insecticides and their targets. Recently, the functional expression of the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been described, and detailed evaluations using the insect nAChR have emerged. This review discusses the basic concepts and the current insights into the molecular mechanisms of neuroactive insecticides targeting the ligand-gated ion channels, particularly Cys-loop receptors, and presents insights into target-based selectivity, resistance, and future drug design.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Matthias Ochs ◽  
Julia Schipke

AbstractThe intention of this short primer is to raise your appetite for proper quantitative assessment of lung micro-structure. The method of choice for obtaining such data is stereology. Rooted in stochastic geometry, stereology provides simple and efficient tools to obtain quantitative three-dimensional information based on measurements on nearly two-dimensional microscopic sections. In this primer, the basic concepts of stereology and its application to the lung are introduced step by step along the workflow of a stereological study. The integration of stereology in your laboratory work will help to improve its quality. In a broader context, stereology may also be seen as a contribution to good scientific practice.


Author(s):  
Jesus Carrera ◽  
Maarten W. Saaltink ◽  
Joaquim Soler-Sagarra ◽  
Jingjing Wang ◽  
Cristina Valhondo

Reactive transport (RT) couples bio-geo-chemical reactions and transport. RT is important to understand numerous scientific questions and solve some engineering problems. RT is highly multidisciplinary, which hinders the development of a body of knowledge shared by RT modelers and developers. The goal of this paper is to review the basic conceptual issues shared by all RT problems, so as to facilitate advance along the current frontier: biochemical reactions. To this end, we review the basic equations to point that chemical systems are controlled by the set of equilibrium reactions, which are easy to model, but whose rate is controlled by mixing. Since mixing is not properly represented by the standard advection-dispersion equation (ADE), we conclude that this equation is poor for RT. This leads us to review alternative transport formulations, and the methods to solve RT problems using both the ADE and alternative equations. Since equilibrium is easy, difficulties arise for kinetic reactions, which is especially true for biochemistry, where numerous frontiers are open (how to represent microbial communities, impact of genomics, effect of biofilms on flow and transport, etc.). We conclude with the basic 10 issues that we consider fundamental for any conceptually sound RT effort.


Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1886
Author(s):  
Matyas Jelinek ◽  
Michal Jurajda ◽  
Kamil Duris

The production of free radicals is inevitably associated with metabolism and other enzymatic processes. Under physiological conditions, however, free radicals are effectively eliminated by numerous antioxidant mechanisms. Oxidative stress occurs due to an imbalance between the production and elimination of free radicals under pathological conditions. Oxidative stress is also associated with ageing. The brain is prone to oxidative damage because of its high metabolic activity and high vulnerability to ischemic damage. Oxidative stress, thus, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of both acute and chronic pathologies in the brain, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. The goal of this article is to summarize the basic concepts of oxidative stress and its significance in brain pathologies, as well as to discuss treatment strategies for dealing with oxidative stress in stroke.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 352
Author(s):  
Nurbaiah Muhammad Noh ◽  
Mohd Raizamzamani Md Zain ◽  
Yazmin Sahol Hamid ◽  
Ilyani Akmar Abu Bakar ◽  
Mazlina Mohamad

Abstract: This paper presents the assessment of a continuous assessment in a project for the Dynamics subject using an analytic rubric. Dynamics subject should improve the ability of students to evaluate and solve problems using well-understood basic concepts implemented in a simple logical manner. It focuses on the proper interpretation and application of the concepts of mechanics to the solution of engineering problems. To achieve the objective of being able to examine the issue of mechanics, students were asked to prepare a poster that must consist of the real-life application of dynamics, which they must incorporate in the sense of their poster the definition plus the use of basic fundamental principles. An analytic rubric was used as a scaffold in the evaluation of the continuous assessment of undergraduate students of civil engineering in the Dynamics subject. The continuous assessment referred to was the evaluation of a project called 'Poster Dynamics in Life.' Using analytic rubrics, lecturers in this engineering subject (Dynamics) may specifically list evaluation criteria to improve the synchronization of learning, instruction, and assessment. Besides, students may then use the rubric to organize their assigned project,  describe goals,  define and concentrate efforts where appropriate,  identify concerns relevant to the project, and  control the process in an attempt to construct a high-quality project. The results from this assessment show that most of the students achieved all the performance criteria at an acceptable level. Keywords: Undergraduates, Program outcomes, Dynamics subject, Assessment, Rubrics


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