Inferential Statistics
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Akinbola Adeyose Emmanuel

The study examined the performance and risk management of vegetable production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire and personal interview schedule. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as Ordinary Least Square (OLS) were used for the analysis of this study. The results found out that lack of discriminating pricing system, conflict in policy making, and high cost of inputs affect the market prices and as well serve as the main production risks that were observed by the farmers in the area. The average cost incurred for the production was about ₦6,908, while the total revenue accrued was ₦41,751. The gross margin and net farm income realized per production season were ₦36,973 and ₦34,843, respectively. The value (6.0) of return on investment showed that farmers realized times six of their investment. The variables such as household size, farm size, fertilizer application and equipment were the main determinants of vegetable production in the area. Also, the main challenges faced by the farmers were the infestation of pests and diseases, inadequate funds and climate change consequences. Therefore, it is recommended that the vegetable farmers should be encouraged through technical training on innovative approach to price determination and forming of functioning market structure in the area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (2) ◽  
Mariana de Morais Fortunato Miranda ◽  
Dayanne Rakelly de Oliveira ◽  
Glauberto da Silva Quirino ◽  
Célida Juliana de Oliveira ◽  
Maria Lúcia Duarte Pereira ◽  

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the association between adherence to antiretroviral treatment by adults with HIV/AIDS and sociodemographic factors, social and clinical support. Methods: Cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach. Participation of 230 patients. Questionnaires of sociodemographic characterization, social and clinical support, and assessment of adherence to antiretroviral treatment were used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Results: Adherence was classified as good/adequate. An association with sex, income, employment, and level of education was noted. In social support: having access to health services; communication with health professionals; health education; having support to allow venting/talking about issues; information on HIV/AIDS; and company for leisure. In the clinical profile: non-interruption of the drug treatment due to absence from the service or due to changes in the medical prescription. Conclusion: Adherence was classified as good/adequate and especially associated with social support factors, which should be enhanced in clinical practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Rita Gouveia ◽  
Vasco Ramos ◽  
Karin Wall

Throughout the world, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted family routines, relationships, projects and sociability, threatening the health, income, social cohesion, and well-being of individuals and their families. Lockdown restrictions imposed during the first wave of the pandemic challenged the theories, concepts, and methods used by family sociologists and the intersecting fields of gender and social inequality. By restricting physical interactions to co-resident family members, the household regained a privileged role as a crucial social laboratory for studying the impact of COVID-19 on family life. The difficulties encountered by individuals in maintaining and dealing with close relationships across households and geographical borders, in a context in which relational proximity was discouraged by the public authorities, exposed the linked nature of family and personal relationships beyond the limits of co-residence. The main aim of this article is to investigate the social impacts of the pandemic on different types of households during the first lockdown at an early stage of the pandemic in Portugal. Drawing on an online survey applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 11,508 households between 25 and 29 March 2020, the authors combined quantitative and qualitative methods, including bi-variate inferential statistics, cluster analysis and in-depth case studies. The article distinguishes between different household types: solo, couple with and without children, extended, friendship, lone-parent families, and intermittent arrangements, such as shared custody. A cross-tabulation of the quantitative data with open-ended responses was carried out to provide a refined analysis of the household reconfigurations brought about during lockdown. The analysis showed how pre-existing unequal structural living conditions shaped the pathways leading to household reconfiguration as families sought to cope with restrictions on mobility, social distancing norms, and other lockdown measures. The findings stress that, in dealing with a crisis, multilevel welfare interventions need to be considered if governments are to cater to the differentiated social needs and vulnerabilities faced by individuals and families.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 42-68
John Wandaga ◽  
Hellen Mberia

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish political rally messages effect on ethnic intolerance and conflict among voters in Migori County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: Descriptive research design was adopted. The study targeted a population of 388, 633 respondents made of voters from Migori County. A sample of 400 respondents was used. The sample for quantitative data was obtained using stratified random sampling method and the other section of the sample; media practitoners were non-randomly sampled. The sample for qualitative data was collected through FGDs on a purposefully selected sample. The data collection was conducted through administering of questionnaires and also Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) using a structured and pilot-tested questionnaires. Data was collected using questionnaires and FGDs. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences computer software package (SPSS statistics version 22). Descriptive statistics drawn include mean, and standard deviation which were presented in tables and graphs. Inferential statistics drawn include multiple regression and correlation analysis. Results:  The findings revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between propaganda, stereotype, hate messages and vernacular radio stations to ethnic intolerance and conflict among voters in Migori County, Kenya. Based on the findings, it was concluded that, there is a positive and significant relationship between political rally messages and vernacular radio stations used in this study, and ethnic intolerance and conflict among voters in Migori County, Kenya. Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: The study recommends to government agencies such as NCIC and Media Council of Kenya and the IEBC to consider taking measures against these political rally messages as one way to reduce ethnic intolerance and conflict among voters in Migori County, Kenya.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (10) ◽  
pp. 271-276
Sreejesh. K.P ◽  
Nezra Joseph ◽  
Gopika K Sreenivasan

Background: Sleep is essential for prevention of wasteful use of energy, resupply of energy and helps the brain to convert short term memory to long term memory. Poor sleep quality affect person’s physical and psychological health. Objectives: Objectives of the study are to investigate correlation of sleep quality and anxiety level among college students and to find out the association between demographic variables with sleep quality and anxiety level of college students in Ernakulam. Methodology: Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Convenience sampling technique was used to select 100 samples from amrita school of arts and sciences Ernakulum. The tool used for the study consists of structured self-administered demographic profile of college students; Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was used to measure the total PSQI score and its 7 sub component and Becks Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used to measure the self-report measure anxiety. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: Majority of the subjects 67 (67%) had poor sleep quality and most of the subjects 76% had low anxiety and BAI score was highly significant association but had moderately positive correlation with sleep medication and total PSQI Score. All other subcomponents of PSQI had weak positive correlation with anxiety level. Anxiety level of college student had significant association (p=0.012) association with using of E gadgets Conclusion: In conclusion of the study decrease in sleep quality increase the anxiety level of college students. Keywords: college students, sleep quality, anxiety.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1068
Faith O. Alele ◽  
Bunmi S. Malau-Aduli ◽  
Aduli E. O. Malau-Aduli ◽  
Melissa J. Crowe

Heat intolerance is the inability to withstand heat stress and this may occur due to exertional heat stroke (EHS). However, it is unknown if heat intolerance is associated with immune and hormonal disturbances. This study investigates haematological, biochemical and hormonal biomarkers related to heat intolerance and EHS in military and civilian volunteers. A quasi-experimental pre-and post-test design was used, with participants drawn from the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the general populace. Blood samples were collected and analysed for biomarkers. Inferential statistics compared the biomarkers between the groups. Changes in alanine amino transaminase (p = 0.034), creatine kinase (0.044), cortisol (p = 0.041) and creatinine (p < 0.001) differed between the heat-intolerant and heat-tolerant groups. Participants with a history of EHS showed significant changes in creatinine (p = 0.022) and urea (p = 0.0031) compared to those without EHS history. Predictors of heat intolerance were increasing post-HTT creatinine and cortisol (OR = 1.177, p = 0.011 and OR = 1.015, p = 0.003 respectively). Conclusively, EHS history is associated with changes in creatinine and urea concentrations, while the predictors of heat intolerance are creatinine and cortisol. However, further exploration of other biomarkers, such as genetic polymorphism, is needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Narges Ziaei ◽  
Marzie Shaveisi ◽  
Maryam Janatolmakan ◽  
Roya Safari Bahramani ◽  
Alireza Khatony

Background. Learning approaches are a set of skills and strategies used by learners to organize and recall the content. Teachers can adopt appropriate teaching methods if they know the students’ learning approaches. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between learning approaches and academic performance of dental student. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 128 dental students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were recruited by the stratified random sampling method. The data collection tools were a demographic information form and Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). To determine academic performance, the grade point average (GPA) of the previous semester was used, and students with GPA scores ≤14.99 and ≥ 15 were divided into weak and strong groups, respectively. Data were analyzed by SPSS 17 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The most common learning approach in most strong (n = 49, 45.4%) and weak (n = 12, 60%) students was the superficial approach. The results of the chi-square test did not show a statistically significant difference between strong and weak students in terms of the learning approach. Conclusion. The results did not show a statistically significant relationship between students’ learning approach and their academic performance. However, since the superficial approach can lead to a decline in academic performance, the professors need to take the necessary intervention measures to improve students’ learning approaches. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to shed more light on this research domain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 89-99
S. Konyeha ◽  
G. I. Agwam ◽  
E. Musa ◽  
I. V. Ngonadi ◽  
A. C. Afehomo

Women scientists are strategically positioned to drive the current initiatives for achieving targeted sustainable development goals (SDGs). Many women are celebrated today, who have made significant contributions in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), despite hurdles they have been faced with in their science careers. Engaging in normal scientific collaborations was difficult for some of them and simply impossible for others. They were not encouraged by the predominantly male environments of university and business worlds, barred from the communities in which male scientists met and conversed, these women in science struggled against discrimination based on gender. While many of these women have been nearly lost to history in a changing world, some achieved such pinnacles as the Nobel Prize by surmounting these hurdles. This paper investigates factors that inhibit women in science. To this end, a survey design based on random sampling technique using a questionnaire instrument was designed, to retrieve information from individuals engaged in science careers. The study population involved one hundred and fourteen post-graduate science students of the University of Benin. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 for descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that females view mentorship as a very important factor towards their career progression in STEM, but 29% lacked mentors. 73% of the women were not aware of women scientist forums with mentorship opportunities. They were faced with the barrier of funding, lack of mentors and personally encountered gender bias amongst other barriers. From our result, it is evident that the role of mentors to mentees and women scientist initiatives alongside forums with mentoring activities, cooperation, networking and collaborative groups is needed to increase the participation of women and girls in STEM. It is recommended that mentoring forums and strategies should be adopted in schools and organizations to encourage girls and women in science.

Manish Kumar

INTRODUCTION: The word Yoga is derived from the Sanskrit word “to join” or “unity.” It is described in spiritual terms as union of the individual consciousness with the universal consciousness. In another term, Yoga is the “union of mind and body” for balancing and harmonizing the physical and mental functions of body. This is done through the practice of physical postures (asana), breathing control (pranayama), and meditation. In this study, distribution of booklet among adolescents is an attempt to improve the knowledge regarding health benefits of yoga. AIM OF THE STUDY: Assess the knowledge regarding health benefits of yoga among adolescents. METERIAL AND METHOD: A descriptive study was carried out to assess the knowledge of 60 adolescents selected by purposive sampling, who were studying in selected sr. sec. school at jodhpur Rajasthan were assessed by using a structured knowledge questionnaire and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. RESULT: Therefor percentage distribution the sample with reference shows that majority of adolescents have (83.33%) poor and (16.66%) average and no one has good knowledge of health benefits of yoga. However the majority of the demographic variables like gender, religion, area of residents, education of father, types of family, previous attend any yoga programme were not significant at 0.05 level. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded the adolescent’s students are having poor knowledge regarding health benefits of yoga. There are very important to Provides institutional and academic knowledge for yoga theory and practice. So I request to respected department of education to added the yoga subject in primary to Sr. sec academic season for improve student’s health physically, mentally and spiritually health lifestyle. Self-information booklets were distributed to them to improve the knowledge regarding health benefits of yoga. KEY WORDS: Knowledge, adolescents, Health benefits of yoga, Information booklet.

Mahdiyeh Azizi ◽  
Shahnaz Sepehri ◽  
Farangis Demehri

Background and Aim: Hearing loss is and invi­sible disability that adversely affects the quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) combined with compassion-focused therapy (CFT) on behavioral problems and mother-child interactions in children with hearing impairment. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pretest/posttest design using a control gro­up. The study population consists of all mothers of children with hearing impairment in Yazd, Iran. A total of 30 mothers were selected using a purposive sampling method, and randomly assi­gned into control (n = 15) and intervention (n = 15) groups. The intervention group received ACT combined with CFT at eight sessions of 90 minutes, one session per week, while the control did not receive any treatment. Data collections tool were the Parent-Child Relationship Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were ana­lyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The intervention had a significant effect on mother-child interaction and behavioral prob­lems in children with hearing impairment. Conclusion: ACT combined with CFT can be used for intervention of mothers of children with hearing loss to reduce the behavioral problems of their children and improve their interactions with them. Keywords: Acceptance and commitment therapy; compassion focused therapy; behavioral problems; parent-child interaction; children with hearing impairment

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