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2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 320-326
V. A. Beloglazov ◽  
I. A. Yatskov ◽  
E. D. Kumelsky ◽  
V. V. Polovinkina

This review article presents data from the literature, which provide an idea of the relationship between metabolic disorders occurring against the background of obesity and endotoxinemia, as well as the effect of these conditions on the maintenance of low-grade inflammation in the body. A description of the hormonal and immune restructuring of white adipose tissue, the main routes of entry and metabolism of endotoxin is given. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of the mutual influence of obesity and endotoxinemia. Described by Yakovlev M.Yu. in 1988 «endotoxin aggression» and Cani P.D. et al. in 2007, «metabolic endotoxinemia», in our opinion, is one of the most important triggers for the development and progression of a whole spectrum of acute and chronic diseases. Based on the data of recent years, adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ capable of influencing both metabolic processes and the state of innate and acquired immune defense mechanisms. It has now been proven that high-calorie diets lead not only to an increase in overweight, but also to an increase in the level of endotoxin circulating in the blood. An in-depth study of the ability of obesity and endotoxinemia to potentiate the mutual pro-inflammatory effect can help both in understanding the pathogenesis of the main cardiovascular, autoimmune, allergic and infectious (including viral) diseases, and in the development of methods for non-pharmacological and drug correction of these conditions.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1876
Felippe Steven Louis G. Delos Reyes ◽  
Adrian Carlo C. Mamaril ◽  
Trisha Joy P. Matias ◽  
Mary Kathleen V. Tronco ◽  
Gabriel R. Samson ◽  

Our body composition is enormously influenced by our lifestyle choices, which affect our health and longevity. Nutrition and physical activities both impact overall metabolic condition, thus, a positive energy balance causes oxidative stress and inflammation, hastening the development of metabolic syndrome. With this knowledge, boosting endogenous and exogenous antioxidants has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for combating metabolic disorders. One of the promising therapeutic inventions is the use of alkaline reduced water (ARW). Aside from its hydrating and non-caloric properties, ARW has demonstrated strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can help stabilize physiologic turmoil caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review article is a synthesis of studies where we elaborate on the intra- and extracellular effects of drinking ARW, and relate these to the pathophysiology of common metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some cancers. Highlighting the health-promoting benefits of ARW, we also emphasize the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle by incorporating exercise and practicing a balanced diet as forms of habit.

Jeanette Henkelmann ◽  
Constantin Ehrengut ◽  
Timm Denecke

Background Radiology, like almost no other discipline, is faced with a rapid increase in information and technology. This and the growing demands regarding referring medicine, quality requirements, and personnel efficiency increasingly require subspecialization in terms of content. There is already an established move towards radiological subspecialization in the Anglo-American region. In this review article, the content and possibilities of restructuring a hospital radiology department are presented in order to support acceptance in German-speaking countries. Method Based on the current literature, the aspects of subspecialized radiology as well as its necessity, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed and the challenges to hospital management with respect to strategic implementation in the individual phases are presented based on the example of a university radiology department. The viewpoints also take into account the education regulations and integrate a modern learning concept. Results and Conclusion Modern restructuring of hospital radiology departments is faced with increasing demands on a traditionally technically organized radiology department with regard to the complexity of referring medicine, subspecialization pressure (including in certified boards), and staff efficiency. The restructuring of a radiology department must be aligned with the clinical requirements and discussed in the overall concept of radiology including its environment. Key points:  Citation Format

2021 ◽  
Rachayeeta Ray ◽  
Debalina Bhattacharya ◽  
Parimal Karmakar

Abstract Exosomes are small-sized extracellular vesicles. Their size ranges from 30-150 nm and contains proteins, lipids, nucleic acids along other bioactive molecules. It is now also considered as communicating mediators between cells where their content varies with the microenvironment of the cells which may ultimately change numerous physiological and pathological functions of the cells. Because of their small size, safety, biocompatibility, biorecognition, high stability, target specificity, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, the exosomes have recently gained attention as a potential nano delivery system. However, the focus of this review article is to cover the latest updates regarding the role of exosomal delivery of different micro RNAs which have an important role in disease control. Micro RNAs, which are of utmost importance as an exosomal cargo, has been reported to show both positive and negative impact on the cell it is targeted or delivered to.

Rabia Tariq Butt ◽  
Omer Sefvan Janjua ◽  
Sana Mehmood Qureshi ◽  
Muhammad Saad Shaikh ◽  
Julia Guerrero-Gironés ◽  

The hustle and bustle of the planet Earth have come to a halt thanks to the novel coronavirus. The virus has affected approximately 219 million people globally; taken the lives of 4.55 million patients as of September 2021; and created an ambiance of fear, social distancing, and economic instability. The purpose of this review article is to trace the historical origin and evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus is highly contagious with a unique feature of rapid mutations—the scientific research is paving the way for discoveries regarding novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnosis, features, prevention, and vaccination. The connections between the coronavirus pandemic and dental practices are essential because COVID-19 is transmitted by aerosols, fomites, and respiratory droplets, which are also produced during dental procedures, putting both the patient and the dentist at risk. The main emphasis of this paper is to highlight the psychological, economic, and social impact of this pandemic on dental practices throughout the world and under what circumstances and guidelines can dental health care be provided. In the current situation of the pandemic, an appropriate screening tool must be established either by using rapid molecular testing or saliva point-of-care technology, which will be effective in identifying as well as isolating the potential contacts and carriers in hopes to contain and mitigate infection. The blessing in disguise is that this virus has united the leaders, scientists, health care providers, and people of all professions from all around the world to fight against a common enemy.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Nima Hasanzadeh ◽  
Azadeh Niknejad

Context: Glioblastoma, previously known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a grade IV astrocytoma common in patients over the age of 45, on average. It is generally categorized into primary and secondary subtypes, based on research conducted by Hans Joachim Scherer. Evidence Acquisition: This review concentrates on cellular and genetic drawbacks that can lead to the appearance of glioblastoma. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) was the main source used for writing this review article, followed by Google scholar. The following keywords were used to retrieve articles: 'glioblastoma', 'brain tumors', 'glioma', 'LOH', and 'cellular and signaling pathways in glioblastoma'. Results: Several genetic alterations and cellular pathways are involved in the appearance and progression of glioblastoma, including loss of heterozygosity (LoH), TP53 mutation, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, P16INK4/RB1 pathway, and EGFR/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway. The majority (70%) of primary glioblastomas are caused by (LoH), and it mostly occurs in older people. Secondary glioblastoma is mainly manifested by TP53 mutation and usually affects younger people. Understanding the alterations and cellular mechanisms involved in glioblastoma is important to develope new therapeutic regimes. Surgery, radiation therapy, temozolomide, and TTFields are the four most important therapeutic options available for treating patients. Conclusions: In this review, the genetic alterations and cellular pathways which could lead to the appearance of this tumor were highlighted, and the latest options for treating patients dealing with glioblastoma were discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 402-405
Ayesha Vos

Background: It is well established that early intervention in acne treatment reduces the incidence of scars. The purpose of this paper was to identify if early intervention in acne management also provides a cost benefit to the patient, reduces relapse rates or lessens the requirement for the treatment of acne scars. Method: A systematic search of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) was performed independently by one reviewer using predefined criteria. Results: Seven articles were identified from the literature – one systematic review, one review article and five expert opinion articles. Although data supports early intervention in acne management, no articles identified whether a cost benefit was also provided, if there was a reduction in the relapse rates or if there was a decreased requirement for the treatment of acne scars. Conclusions: This review identifies an overall lack of published data regarding multiple outcomes for early intervention in acne and allows for the possible identification of areas where primary research would be beneficial.

2021 ◽  
pp. 48-57
I. B. Angotoeva ◽  
A. K. Aylarov ◽  
S. Ya. Kosyakov ◽  
I. D. Loranskaya ◽  
E. E. Rumyantseva

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an actual, modern problem for the practice of an ENT doctor, because majority of complaints lead the patient, first of all, to an otorhinolaryngologist. LPR is an extraesophageal manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which leads to a recurrent course of symptoms resulting from the direct action of gastric contents on the mucous membrane of the laryngopharynx when ingested through the upper esophageal sphincter, as well as a decrease in the quality of life. Patients with LPR represent 4% to 10% of outpatients visiting an ENT physician. The main problem of diagnosing of LPR is that there are not any exact researches for this disease, such as PCR-test or biopsy. GERD diagnostic methods performed by gastroenterologists include: assessment of complaints, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS), intraesophageal pH-metry, esophageal manometry, impedance-pH-metry with the placement of 2 probes in the esophagus and pharynx, gastrointestinal fluoroscopy (GI) with barium, gastroesophageal scintigraphy, abdominal ultrasound (abdominal ultrasound), and pepsin test. All these tests are widely using for diagnosis and sometimes helps us. But the question remains: do all these research methods allow to establish the presence of LPR? Interpretation of existing studies is difficult due to the ambiguous diagnostic criteria for LPR, varying rates of response to treatment, and the significant effect of placebo treatment. Therefore, diagnostic methods for LFR require further study and development.

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