With the development of straw baling mechanization technology, straw is stored in the form of square baling or round baling. At present, hammer mill or the guilt-cutting and rubbing combined mill is widely used to crush square bales of straw. These two kinds of crushing equipment have disadvantages such as low productivity, large power consumption, and poor crushing effect. This paper aims to study and analyze the crushing characteristics of square baled straw after unbaling, and lay a theoretical foundation for the later research and development of a special square baled straw crusher with high productivity, low power consumption, good crushing effect, and the simulation of the square baled corn straw crushing process. For this purpose, this study carried out a corn bale crushing experiment on the Instron 8801 fatigue test machine, and studied the effects of blade angle, water content and loading speed on corn bale crushing force through the response surface method. Test results showed that the crushing process includes the compression stage and shearing stage; in terms of single factor effect, with the increase in water content and blade angle, the crushing force of the corn bale increased, but the loading speed had no significant effect on the crushing force of the corn bale. In terms of interaction effect, there was interaction effect between moisture content and blade inclination angle, when moisture content was 10%, with the increase in blade inclination angle, the incremental speed of the crushing force also increased gradually. When the blade inclination angle was 10°, with the increase in moisture content, the incremental speed of the crushing force also increased, and the interaction effect of them jointly acted on the crushing force of the corn bales.
Various simulations have been conducted to understand the macroscopic behavior of particles in the solid-gas flow in rotating drums in the past. In these studies, the no-slip wall boundary condition and fixed restitution coefficient between particles were usually adopted. The paper presents a numerical study of the gas-solid flow in a rotating drum to understand the effect of the specularity coefficient and restitution coefficient on the hydrodynamic behavior of particles in the segregation process. The volume fraction, granular pressure, granular temperature and their relationships are examined in detail. The boundary conditions of the no-slip and specularity coefficient of 1 are compared. In the simulations, two different sizes of particles with the same density are considered and the Eulerian–Eulerian multiphase model and the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) are used. The results reveal that the hydrodynamical behavior of the particles in the rotating drum is affected by the boundary condition and restitution coefficient. In particular, the increase of specularity coefficient can increase the active region depth, angle repose, granular pressure for both small and large particles and granular temperature for large particles. With increasing restitution coefficient, the angle of repose decreases and granular pressure and temperature increase at the same volume fraction for both small and large particles.
The separation of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-C4H6) and 1-butene (n-C4H8) is quite challenging due to their close boiling points and similar molecular structures. Extractive distillation (ED) is widely regarded as a promising approach for such a separation task. For ED processes, the selection of suitable entrainer is of central importance. Traditional ED processes using organic solvents suffer from high energy consumption. To tackle this issue, the utilization of ionic liquids (ILs) can serve as a potential alternative. In this work, a high-throughput computational screening of ILs is performed to find proper entrainers, where 36,260 IL candidates comprising of 370 cations and 98 anions are involved. COSMO-RS is employed to calculate the infinite dilution extractive capacity and selectivity of the 36,260 ILs. In doing so, the ILs that satisfy the prespecified thermodynamic criteria and physical property constraints are identified. After the screening, the resulting IL candidates are sent for rigorous process simulation and design. 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylimidazolium methylcarbonate is found to be the optimal IL solvent. Compared with the benchmark ED process where the organic solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is adopted, the energy consumption is reduced by 26%. As a result, this work offers a new IL-based ED process for efficient 1,3-C4H6 production.
The application of a machine learning (ML) model to bio-electrochemical anaerobic digestion (BEAD) is a future-oriented approach for improving process stability by predicting performances that have nonlinear relationships with various operational parameters. Five ML models, which included tree-, regression-, and neural network-based algorithms, were applied to predict the methane yield in BEAD reactor. The results showed that various 1-step ahead ML models, which utilized prior data of BEAD performances, could enhance prediction accuracy. In addition, 1-step ahead with retraining algorithm could improve prediction accuracy by 37.3% compared with the conventional multi-step ahead algorithm. The improvement was particularly noteworthy in tree- and regression-based ML models. Moreover, 1-step ahead with retraining algorithm showed high potential of achieving efficient prediction using pH as a single input data, which is plausibly an easier monitoring parameter compared with the other parameters required in bioprocess models.
This study investigated the effect of gum Arabic and starch-based coating and two polyliners (Liner 1-micro-perforated Xtend® and Liner 2-macro-perforated high-density polyethylene) on whole ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate fruit during cold storage (5 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 2% RH). Uncoated (UC) and coated (GAMS) fruit were packaged into standard open top ventilated cartons (dimensions: 0.40 m long, 0.30 m wide and 0.12 m high) with (GAMS + Liner 1, GAMS + Liner 2, UC + Liner 1 and UC + Liner 2) or without (UC and GAMS) polyliners. After 42 d, treatment GAMS + Liner 1 recorded the least weight loss (4.82%), whilst GAMS recorded lower (8.77%) weight loss than UC + Liner 2 (10.07%). The highest (24.74 mLCO2 kg−1h−1) and lowest (13.14 mLCO2 kg−1h−1) respiration rates were detected in UC and GAMS + Liner 1, respectively. The highest and lowest total soluble solids were recorded for GAMS (16.87 °Brix), and GAMS + Liner 1 (15.60 °Brix) and UC + Liner 1 (15.60 °Brix), respectively. Overall, no decay was detected for coated fruit packaged with either Liner 1 or Liner 2. Therefore, the combination of GAMS with Xtend® polyliners proved to be an effective treatment to maintain the quality of ‘Wonderful’ pomegranates during storage.
In this study, the inhibitory activities against human monoamine oxidases (hMAOs) were evaluated using a library of 195 endogenous lichen fungi from Ukraine. Among them, the extract ELF68 of the endogenous fungus Rosellinia corticium from the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity against hMAO-A. Using the activity-guided method, (S)-5-methylmellein (5MM) was isolated from the extract and had an IC50 value of 5.31 µM for hMAO-A with a lower potency for hMAO-B (IC50 = 9.15 µM). Compound 5MM also moderately inhibited acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 27.07 µM) but very weakly inhibited butyrylcholinesterase and β-secretase. Compound 5MM had a Ki value of 2.45 μM and was a reversible competitive inhibitor of hMAO-A. A molecular docking study predicted that (S)-5MM showed higher binding affinity for hMAO-A (−6.8 kcal/mol) than hMAO-B (−6.4 kcal/mol). Its isomer, (R)-5MM, exhibited lower binding affinities for hMAO-A (−6.6 kcal/mol) and hMAO-B (−5.2 kcal/mol), compared to (S)-5MM. The S-form interacted with hMAO-A through hydrogen bonding with the Phe208 residue (distance: 1.972 Å), while the R-form interacted with the Asn181 residue (2.375 Å). The results of an in silico pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that 5MM did not violate Lipinski’s five rules and showed high gastrointestinal absorption and blood–brain barrier permeability. These results suggest that 5MM can be considered a candidate in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and cardiovascular disease.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes a severe febrile illness with long-lasting arthralgia in humans. As there is no vaccine to protect humans and limit CHIKV epidemics, the virus continues to be a global public health concern. The CHIKV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are important immunogens; therefore, the aim of this study is to produce trimeric CHIKV spikes in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The CHIKV E1 and E2 ectodomains were covalently coupled by a flexible linker that replaces the 6K transmembrane protein. The C-terminal E1 transmembrane was replaced by a Strep-tag II for the purification of secreted spikes from the culture fluid. After production in Sf9 suspension cells (product yields of 5.8–7.6 mg/L), the CHIKV spikes were purified by Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography, which successfully cleared the co-produced baculoviruses. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate cross-linking demonstrated that the spikes are secreted as trimers. PNGase F treatment showed that the spikes are glycosylated. LC–MS/MS-based glycoproteomic analysis confirmed the glycosylation and revealed that the majority are of the mannose- or hybrid-type N-glycans and <2% have complex-type N-glycans. The LC –MS/MS analysis also revealed three O-glycosylation sites in E1. In conclusion, the trimeric, glycosylated CHIKV spikes have been successfully produced in insect cells and are now available for vaccination studies.
This review presents the results of the local formation of nanostructured porous silicon (NPSi) on the surface of silicon wafers by anodic etching using a durite intermediate ring. The morphological and crystallographic features of NPSi structures formed on n- and p-type silicon with low and relatively high resistivity have also been investigated. The proposed scheme allows one to experiment with biological objects (for example, stem cells, neurons, and other objects) in a locally formed porous structure located in close proximity to the electronic periphery of sensor devices on a silicon wafer.
Jet impingement has been effective in reducing the process time and improvement of product quality in various industrial applications, such as textile and paper drying, electronic cooling, glass quenching and food processing. The current work applied innovative steam injection to liquid food continuous sterilization. The multiple impingement jets of steam and product came together in the impingement tank. The effects were investigated on the Reynolds number, steam temperature and jet-to-target spacing (H/d), sterilization temperature and heat transfer efficiency in water and pineapple juice tests. The Reynolds number was based on the nozzle configuration and liquid flow rate. The study investigated product injection plates formed using two, three or four circular holes (diameter 2 mm), steam injection plates with six, nine or twenty circular holes (diameter 1 mm), steam temperatures of 120, 125 or 130 °C and H/d values of 1, 3, 5 or 7. The different options were tested with water to determine the optimal conditions, and then tested with pineapple juice. The results showed that the optimal conditions from water testing that provided the highest heat transfer efficiency occurred with two jet nozzles, six steam injection plates, a steam temperature of 120 °C and an H/d value of 1.
In the field of desalination powered by renewable energies, the use of solar power cycles exhibits some favorable characteristics, such as the possibility of implementing thermal energy storage systems or a multi-generation scheme (e.g., electricity, water, cooling, hydrogen). This article presents a review of the latest design proposals in which two power cycles of great potential are considered: the organic Rankine cycle and the supercritical CO2 power cycle, the latter of growing interest in recent years. The designs found in the literature are grouped into three main types of systems. In the case of solar ORC-based systems, the option of reverse osmosis as a desalination technology is considered in medium-temperature solar systems with storage but also with low-temperature using solar ponds. In the first case, it is also common to incorporate single-effect absorption systems for cooling production. The use of thermal desalination processes is also found in many proposals based on solar ORC. In this case, the usual configuration implies the cycle’s cooling by the own desalination process. This option is also common in systems based on the supercritical CO2 power cycle where MED technology is usually selected. Designs proposals are reviewed and assessed to point out design recommendations.