chemical reaction
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Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 93
Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar ◽  
Aftab Ahmed Faridi ◽  
Sohail Ahmad ◽  
Nargis Khan ◽  
Kashif Ali ◽  

The mass and heat transfer magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows have a substantial use in heat exchangers, electromagnetic casting, X-rays, the cooling of nuclear reactors, mass transportation, magnetic drug treatment, energy systems, fiber coating, etc. The present work numerically explores the mass and heat transportation flow of MHD micropolar fluid with the consideration of a chemical reaction. The flow is taken between the walls of a permeable channel. The quasi-linearization technique is utilized to solve the complex dynamical coupled and nonlinear differential equations. The consequences of the preeminent parameters are portrayed via graphs and tables. A tabular and graphical comparison evidently reveals a correlation of our results with the existing ones. A strong deceleration is found in the concentration due to the effect of a chemical reaction. Furthermore, the impact of the magnetic field force is to devaluate the mass and heat transfer rates not only at the lower but at the upper channel walls, likewise.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 38
Ridhwan Reyaz ◽  
Ahmad Qushairi Mohamad ◽  
Yeou Jiann Lim ◽  
Muhammad Saqib ◽  
Sharidan Shafie

Fractional derivatives have been proven to showcase a spectrum of solutions that is useful in the fields of engineering, medical, and manufacturing sciences. Studies on the application of fractional derivatives on fluid flow are relatively new, especially in analytical studies. Thus, geometrical representations for fractional derivatives in the mechanics of fluid flows are yet to be discovered. Nonetheless, theoretical studies will be useful in facilitating future experimental studies. Therefore, the aim of this study is to showcase an analytical solution on the impact of the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative for a magnethohydrodynamic (MHD) Casson fluid flow with thermal radiation and chemical reaction. Analytical solutions are obtained via Laplace transform through compound functions. The obtained solutions are first verified, then analysed. It is observed from the study that variations in the fractional derivative parameter, α, exhibits a transitional behaviour of fluid between unsteady state and steady state. Numerical analyses on skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number were also analysed. Behaviour of these three properties were in agreement of that from past literature.

2022 ◽  
Mingjian Wen ◽  
Samuel M. Blau ◽  
Xiaowei Xie ◽  
Shyam Dwaraknath ◽  
Kristin A. Persson

Machine learning (ML) methods have great potential to transform chemical discovery by accelerating the exploration of chemical space and drawing scientific insights from data. However, modern chemical reaction ML models, such as those based on graph neural networks (GNNs), must be trained on a large amount of labelled data in order to avoid overfitting the data and thus possessing low accuracy and transferability. In this work, we propose a strategy to leverage unlabelled data to learn accurate ML models for small labelled chemical reaction data. We focus on an old and prominent problem—classifying reactions into distinct families—and build a GNN model for this task. We first pretrain the model on unlabelled reaction data using unsupervised contrastive learning and then fine-tune it on a small number of labelled reactions. The contrastive pretraining learns by making the representations of two augmented versions of a reaction similar to each other but distinct from other reactions. We propose chemically consistent reaction augmentation methods that protect the reaction center and find they are the key for the model to extract relevant information from unlabelled data to aid the reaction classification task. The transfer learned model outperforms a supervised model trained from scratch by a large margin. Further, it consistently performs better than models based on traditional rule-driven reaction fingerprints, which have long been the default choice for small datasets. In addition to reaction classification, the effectiveness of the strategy is tested on regression datasets; the learned GNN-based reaction fingerprints can also be used to navigate the chemical reaction space, which we demonstrate by querying for similar reactions. The strategy can be readily applied to other predictive reaction problems to uncover the power of unlabelled data for learning better models with a limited supply of labels.

2022 ◽  
Julian Klein ◽  
Laura Kampermann ◽  
Jannik Korte ◽  
Maik Dreyer ◽  
Eko Budiyanto ◽  

Spectroscopic methods enabling real-time monitoring of dynamic surface processes are a prerequisite for identifying how a catalyst triggers a chemical reaction. We present an in situ photoluminescence spectroscopy approach for probing the thermo-catalytic 2-propanol oxidation over mesostructured Co3O4 nanowires. Under oxidative conditions, a distinct blue emission at ~420 nm is detected that increases with temperature up to 280 °C, with an intermediate maximum at 150 °C. Catalytic data gained under comparable conditions show that this course of photoluminescence intensity precisely follows the conversion of 2-propanol and the production of acetone. The blue emission is assigned to the radiative recombination of unbound acetone molecules, the n - π* transition of which is selectively excited by a wavelength of 270 nm. These findings open a pathway for studying thermo-catalytic processes via in situ photoluminescence spectroscopy thereby gaining information about the performance of the catalyst and the formation of intermediate products.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 432
Sulejman Alihodžić ◽  
Hana Čipčić Paljetak ◽  
Ana Čikoš ◽  
Ivaylo Jivkov Elenkov

Unprecedented tandem allylic alkylation/intermolecular Michael addition was used in the preparation of novel bicyclic azalides. NMR spectroscopy was used not only to unambiguously determine and characterize the structures of these unexpected products of chemical reaction but also to investigate the effect the rigid bicyclic modification has on the conformation of the whole molecule. Thus, some of the macrolides prepared showed antibacterial activity in the range of well-known antibiotic drug azithromycin.

2022 ◽  
Alexander Pomberger ◽  
Antonio Pedrina McCarthy ◽  
Ahmad Khan ◽  
Simon Sung ◽  
Connor Taylor ◽  

Multivariate chemical reaction optimization involving catalytic systems is a non-trivial task due to the high number of tuneable parameters and discrete choices. Closed-loop optimization featuring active Machine Learning (ML) represents a powerful strategy for automating reaction optimization. However, the translation of chemical reaction conditions into a machine-readable format comes with the challenge of finding highly informative features which accurately capture the factors for reaction success and allow the model to learn efficiently. Herein, we compare the efficacy of different calculated chemical descriptors for a high throughput generated dataset to determine the impact on a supervised ML model when predicting reaction yield. Then, the effect of featurization and size of the initial dataset within a closed-loop reaction optimization was examined. Finally, the balance between descriptor complexity and dataset size was considered. Ultimately, tailored descriptors did not outperform simple generic representations, however, a larger initial dataset accelerated reaction optimization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Youngchun Kwon ◽  
Dongseon Lee ◽  
Youn-Suk Choi ◽  
Seokho Kang

AbstractIn this paper, we present a data-driven method for the uncertainty-aware prediction of chemical reaction yields. The reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented as a set of molecular graphs. The predictive distribution of the yield is modeled as a graph neural network that directly processes a set of graphs with permutation invariance. Uncertainty-aware learning and inference are applied to the model to make accurate predictions and to evaluate their uncertainty. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on benchmark datasets with various settings. Compared to the existing methods, the proposed method improves the prediction and uncertainty quantification performance in most settings.

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