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2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (2) ◽  
Johannes Mirwald ◽  
Drilon Nura ◽  
Bernhard Hofko

AbstractThe application of chemical analysis on bituminous materials has increased drastically over the past decades. One of the most common spectroscopic methods used in the field of research is Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Since ATR-FTIR is a surface sensitive method, sample or specimen handling of a complex material like bitumen prior to its analysis needs to be considered, especially for people new to the field or analysis technique. This study looks at the impact of heating time and temperature as well as storage time and conditions on the oxidation of the bituminous specimen. Four binders from the same crude oil source but different specification classes (unmodified and styrene–butadiene–styrene polymer modified) and two binders from different crude oil sources were investigated. The results show that heating small quantities of bitumen at 180 °C for up to 30 min has little impact on the formation of oxidized species, when proper thermal monitoring is conducted. Special cases where oxidation does occur are reported in detail. Furthermore, strong oxidation is induced by day light, when bitumen is stored behind glass with no UV radiation present, which can reach short-term ageing level within 1 h. Thus, heating bitumen at 180 °C for 5–10 min followed by storage in the dark, climatized room and measured within one hour after preparation is recommended. These results should act as recommendation for future specimen handling prior to FTIR spectroscopic analysis to ensure unbiased and comparable measurements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 890
Paweł Dra̧g

An optimization task with nonlinear differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) was approached. In special cases in heat and mass transfer engineering, a classical direct shooting approach cannot provide a solution of the DAE system, even in a relatively small range. Moreover, available computational procedures for numerical optimization, as well as differential- algebraic systems solvers are characterized by their limitations, such as the problem scale, for which the algorithms can work efficiently, and requirements for appropriate initial conditions. Therefore, an αDAE model optimization algorithm based on an α-model parametrization approach was designed and implemented. The main steps of the proposed methodology are: (1) task discretization by a multiple-shooting approach, (2) the design of an α-parametrized system of the differential-algebraic model, and (3) the numerical optimization of the α-parametrized system. The computations can be performed by a chosen iterative optimization algorithm, which can cooperate with an outer numerical procedure for solving DAE systems. The implemented algorithm was applied to solve a counter-flow exchanger design task, which was modeled by the highly nonlinear differential-algebraic equations. Finally, the new approach enabled the numerical simulations for the higher values of parameters denoting the rate of changes in the state variables of the system. The new approach can carry out accurate simulation tests for systems operating in a wide range of configurations and created from new materials.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 264
Kin Keung Lai ◽  
Jaya Bisht ◽  
Nidhi Sharma ◽  
Shashi Kant Mishra

We introduce a new class of interval-valued preinvex functions termed as harmonically h-preinvex interval-valued functions. We establish new inclusion of Hermite–Hadamard for harmonically h-preinvex interval-valued function via interval-valued Riemann–Liouville fractional integrals. Further, we prove fractional Hermite–Hadamard-type inclusions for the product of two harmonically h-preinvex interval-valued functions. In this way, these findings include several well-known results and newly obtained results of the existing literature as special cases. Moreover, applications of the main results are demonstrated by presenting some examples.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 163
Karl Hess

This review is related to the Einstein-Bohr debate and to Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen’s (EPR) and Bohm’s (EPRB) Gedanken-experiments as well as their realization in actual experiments. I examine a significant number of papers, from my minority point of view and conclude that the well-known theorems of Bell and Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH) deal with mathematical abstractions that have only a tenuous relation to quantum theory and the actual EPRB experiments. It is also shown that, therefore, Bell-CHSH cannot be used to assess the nature of quantum entanglement, nor can physical features of entanglement be used to prove Bell-CHSH. Their proofs are, among other factors, based on a statistical sampling argument that is invalid for general physical entities and processes and only applicable for finite “populations”; not for elements of physical reality that are linked, for example, to a time-like continuum. Bell-CHSH have, furthermore, neglected the subtleties of the theorem of Vorob’ev that includes their theorems as special cases. Vorob’ev found that certain combinatorial-topological cyclicities of classical random variables form a necessary and sufficient condition for the constraints that are now known as Bell-CHSH inequalities. These constraints, however, must not be linked to the observables of quantum theory nor to the actual EPRB experiments for a variety of reasons, including the existence of continuum-related variables and appropriate considerations of symmetry.

Gediminas Adomavicius ◽  
Alok Gupta ◽  
Mochen Yang

Combinatorial auctions have seen limited applications in large-scale consumer-oriented marketplaces, partly due to the substantial complexity to keep track of auction status and formulate informed bidding strategies. We study the bidder support problem for the general multi-item multi-unit (MIMU) combinatorial auctions, where multiple heterogeneous items are being auctioned and multiple homogeneous units are available for each item. Under two prevalent bidding languages (OR bidding and XOR bidding), we derive theoretical results and design efficient algorithmic procedures to calculate important bidder support information, such as the winning bids of an auction and the minimum bidding value for a bid to win an auction either immediately or potentially in the future. Our results unify the theoretical insights on bidder support problem for different bidding languages as well as different special cases of general MIMU auctions, namely the single-item multi-unit (SIMU) auctions and the multi-item single-unit (MISU) auctions. We also consider auctions with additional bidding constraints, including batch-based combinatorial auctions and hierarchical combinatorial auctions, as well as the combinatorial reverse auctions, all of which have relevant practical applications (e.g., industrial procurements). Our results can be readily extended to solve the bidder support problems in these auction mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 42
Soubhagya Kumar Sahoo ◽  
Muhammad Tariq ◽  
Hijaz Ahmad ◽  
Bibhakar Kodamasingh ◽  
Asif Ali Shaikh ◽  

The comprehension of inequalities in convexity is very important for fractional calculus and its effectiveness in many applied sciences. In this article, we handle a novel investigation that depends on the Hermite–Hadamard-type inequalities concerning a monotonic increasing function. The proposed methodology deals with a new class of convexity and related integral and fractional inequalities. There exists a solid connection between fractional operators and convexity because of its fascinating nature in the numerical sciences. Some special cases have also been discussed, and several already-known inequalities have been recaptured to behave well. Some applications related to special means, q-digamma, modified Bessel functions, and matrices are discussed as well. The aftereffects of the plan show that the methodology can be applied directly and is computationally easy to understand and exact. We believe our findings generalise some well-known results in the literature on s-convexity.

2022 ◽  
Eyke Hüllermeier ◽  
Marcel Wever ◽  
Eneldo Loza Mencia ◽  
Johannes Fürnkranz ◽  
Michael Rapp

AbstractThe idea to exploit label dependencies for better prediction is at the core of methods for multi-label classification (MLC), and performance improvements are normally explained in this way. Surprisingly, however, there is no established methodology that allows to analyze the dependence-awareness of MLC algorithms. With that goal in mind, we introduce a class of loss functions that are able to capture the important aspect of label dependence. To this end, we leverage the mathematical framework of non-additive measures and integrals. Roughly speaking, a non-additive measure allows for modeling the importance of correct predictions of label subsets (instead of single labels), and thereby their impact on the overall evaluation, in a flexible way. The well-known Hamming and subset 0/1 losses are rather extreme special cases of this function class, which give full importance to single label sets or the entire label set, respectively. We present concrete instantiations of this class, which appear to be especially appealing from a modeling perspective. The assessment of multi-label classifiers in terms of these losses is illustrated in an empirical study, clearly showing their aptness at capturing label dependencies. Finally, while not being the main goal of this study, we also show some preliminary results on the minimization of this parametrized family of losses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Bruno Mera ◽  
Anwei Zhang ◽  
Nathan Goldman

Quantum geometry has emerged as a central and ubiquitous concept in quantum sciences, with direct consequences on quantum metrology and many-body quantum physics. In this context, two fundamental geometric quantities are known to play complementary roles:~the Fubini-Study metric, which introduces a notion of distance between quantum states defined over a parameter space, and the Berry curvature associated with Berry-phase effects and topological band structures. In fact, recent studies have revealed direct relations between these two important quantities, suggesting that topological properties can, in special cases, be deduced from the quantum metric. In this work, we establish general and exact relations between the quantum metric and the topological invariants of generic Dirac Hamiltonians. In particular, we demonstrate that topological indices (Chern numbers or winding numbers) are bounded by the quantum volume determined by the quantum metric. Our theoretical framework, which builds on the Clifford algebra of Dirac matrices, is applicable to topological insulators and semimetals of arbitrary spatial dimensions, with or without chiral symmetry. This work clarifies the role of the Fubini-Study metric in topological states of matter, suggesting unexplored topological responses and metrological applications in a broad class of quantum-engineered systems.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 232
Alexander Kazakov ◽  
Anna Lempert

The paper deals with a nonlinear second-order one-dimensional evolutionary equation related to applications and describes various diffusion, filtration, convection, and other processes. The particular cases of this equation are the well-known porous medium equation and its generalizations. We construct solutions that describe perturbations propagating over a zero background with a finite velocity. Such effects are known to be atypical for parabolic equations and appear as a consequence of the degeneration of the equation at the points where the desired function vanishes. Previously, we have constructed it, but here the case of power nonlinearity is considered. It allows for conducting a more detailed analysis. We prove a new theorem for the existence of solutions of this type in the class of piecewise analytical functions, which generalizes and specifies the earlier statements. We find and study exact solutions having the diffusion wave type, the construction of which is reduced to the second-order Cauchy problem for an ordinary differential equation (ODE) that inherits singularities from the original formulation. Statements that ensure the existence of global continuously differentiable solutions are proved for the Cauchy problems. The properties of the constructed solutions are studied by the methods of the qualitative theory of differential equations. Phase portraits are obtained, and quantitative estimates are determined by constructing and analyzing finite difference schemes. The most significant result is that we have shown that all the special cases for incomplete equations take place for the complete equation, and other configurations of diffusion waves do not arise.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Lei Chen ◽  
Waqas Nazeer ◽  
Farman Ali ◽  
Thongchai Botmart ◽  
Sarah Mehfooz

In this research, by using a weighted fractional integral, we establish a midpoint version of Hermite-Hadamrad Fejér type inequality for η -convex function on a specific interval. To confirm the validity, we considered some special cases of our results and relate them with already existing results. It can be observed that several existing results are special cases of our presented results.

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