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2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-70
Mikkel Abrahamsen ◽  
Anna Adamaszek ◽  
Tillmann Miltzow

The Art Gallery Problem (AGP) is a classic problem in computational geometry, introduced in 1973 by Victor Klee. Given a simple polygon 풫 and an integer k , the goal is to decide if there exists a set G of k guards within 풫 such that every point p ∈ 풫 is seen by at least one guard g ∈ G . Each guard corresponds to a point in the polygon 풫, and we say that a guard g sees a point p if the line segment pg is contained in 풫. We prove that the AGP is ∃ ℝ-complete, implying that (1) any system of polynomial equations over the real numbers can be encoded as an instance of the AGP, and (2) the AGP is not in the complexity class NP unless NP = ∃ ℝ. As a corollary of our construction, we prove that for any real algebraic number α, there is an instance of the AGP where one of the coordinates of the guards equals α in any guard set of minimum cardinality. That rules out many natural geometric approaches to the problem, as it shows that any approach based on constructing a finite set of candidate points for placing guards has to include points with coordinates being roots of polynomials with arbitrary degree. As an illustration of our techniques, we show that for every compact semi-algebraic set S ⊆ [0, 1] 2 , there exists a polygon with corners at rational coordinates such that for every p ∈ [0, 1] 2 , there is a set of guards of minimum cardinality containing p if and only if p ∈ S . In the ∃ ℝ-hardness proof for the AGP, we introduce a new ∃ ℝ-complete problem ETR-INV. We believe that this problem is of independent interest, as it has already been used to obtain ∃ ℝ-hardness proofs for other problems.

2022 ◽  
pp. 108128652110731
Victor A Eremeyev ◽  
Leonid P Lebedev ◽  
Violetta Konopińska-Zmysłowska

The problem of dynamics of a linear micropolar shell with a finite set of rigid inclusions is considered. The equations of motion consist of the system of partial differential equations (PDEs) describing small deformations of an elastic shell and ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the motions of inclusions. Few types of the contact of the shell with inclusions are considered. The weak setup of the problem is formulated and studied. It is proved a theorem of existence and uniqueness of a weak solution for the problem under consideration.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 193
Ruixue Zhang ◽  
Fengming Dong ◽  
Meiqiao Zhang

A mixed hypergraph H is a triple (X,C,D), where X is a finite set and each of C and D is a family of subsets of X. For any positive integer λ, a proper λ-coloring of H is an assignment of λ colors to vertices in H such that each member in C contains at least two vertices assigned the same color and each member in D contains at least two vertices assigned different colors. The chromatic polynomial of H is the graph-function counting the number of distinct proper λ-colorings of H whenever λ is a positive integer. In this article, we show that chromatic polynomials of mixed hypergraphs under certain conditions are zero-free in the intervals (−∞,0) and (0,1), which extends known results on zero-free intervals of chromatic polynomials of graphs and hypergraphs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 163 (2) ◽  
pp. 44
Bradley M. S. Hansen

Abstract We present a catalog of unbound stellar pairs, within 100 pc of the Sun, that are undergoing close, hyperbolic, encounters. The data are drawn from the GAIA EDR3 catalog, and the limiting factors are errors in the radial distance and unknown velocities along the line of sight. Such stellar pairs have been suggested to be possible events associated with the migration of technological civilizations between stars. As such, this sample may represent a finite set of targets for a SETI search based on this hypothesis. Our catalog contains a total of 132 close passage events, featuring stars from across the entire main sequence, with 16 pairs featuring at least one main-sequence star of spectral type between K1 and F3. Many of these stars are also in binaries, so that we isolate eight single stars as the most likely candidates to search for an ongoing migration event—HD 87978, HD 92577, HD 50669, HD 44006, HD 80790, LSPM J2126+5338, LSPM J0646+1829 and HD 192486. Among host stars of known planets, the stars GJ 433 and HR 858 are the best candidates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Andreas Galanis ◽  
Leslie Ann Goldberg ◽  
James Stewart

A spin system is a framework in which the vertices of a graph are assigned spins from a finite set. The interactions between neighbouring spins give rise to weights, so a spin assignment can also be viewed as a weighted graph homomorphism. The problem of approximating the partition function (the aggregate weight of spin assignments) or of sampling from the resulting probability distribution is typically intractable for general graphs. In this work, we consider arbitrary spin systems on bipartite expander Δ-regular graphs, including the canonical class of bipartite random Δ-regular graphs. We develop fast approximate sampling and counting algorithms for general spin systems whenever the degree and the spectral gap of the graph are sufficiently large. Roughly, this guarantees that the spin system is in the so-called low-temperature regime. Our approach generalises the techniques of Jenssen et al. and Chen et al. by showing that typical configurations on bipartite expanders correspond to “bicliques” of the spin system; then, using suitable polymer models, we show how to sample such configurations and approximate the partition function in Õ( n 2 ) time, where n is the size of the graph.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Serafino Cicerone ◽  
Mattia D’emidio ◽  
Daniele Frigioni ◽  
Filippo Tirabassi Pascucci

The cavity decomposition problem is a computational geometry problem, arising in the context of modern electronic CAD systems, that concerns detecting the generation and propagation of electromagnetic noise into multi-layer printed circuit boards. Algorithmically speaking, the problem can be formulated so as to contain, as sub-problems, the well-known polygon schematization and polygon decomposition problems. Given a polygon P and a finite set C of given directions, polygon schematization asks for computing a C -oriented polygon P ′ with “low complexity” and “high resemblance” to P , whereas polygon decomposition asks for partitioning P into a set of basic polygonal elements (e.g., triangles) whose size is as small as possible. In this article, we present three different solutions for the cavity decomposition problem, which are obtained by suitably combining existing algorithms for polygon schematization and decomposition, by considering different input parameters, and by addressing both methodological and implementation issues. Since it is difficult to compare the three solutions on a theoretical basis, we present an extensive experimental study, employing both real-world and random data, conducted to assess their performance. We rank the proposed solutions according to the results of the experimental evaluation, and provide insights on natural candidates to be adopted, in practice, as modules of modern printed circuit board design software tools, depending on the observed performance and on the different constraints on the desired output.

Gennadiy Averkov ◽  
Christopher Hojny ◽  
Matthias Schymura

AbstractThe relaxation complexity $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}(X)$$ rc ( X ) of the set of integer points X contained in a polyhedron is the smallest number of facets of any polyhedron P such that the integer points in P coincide with X. It is a useful tool to investigate the existence of compact linear descriptions of X. In this article, we derive tight and computable upper bounds on $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}_\mathbb {Q}(X)$$ rc Q ( X ) , a variant of $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}(X)$$ rc ( X ) in which the polyhedra P are required to be rational, and we show that $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}(X)$$ rc ( X ) can be computed in polynomial time if X is 2-dimensional. Further, we investigate computable lower bounds on $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}(X)$$ rc ( X ) with the particular focus on the existence of a finite set $$Y \subseteq \mathbb {Z}^d$$ Y ⊆ Z d such that separating X and $$Y \setminus X$$ Y \ X allows us to deduce $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}(X) \ge k$$ rc ( X ) ≥ k . In particular, we show for some choices of X that no such finite set Y exists to certify the value of $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}(X)$$ rc ( X ) , providing a negative answer to a question by Weltge (2015). We also obtain an explicit formula for $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}(X)$$ rc ( X ) for specific classes of sets X and present the first practically applicable approach to compute $${{\,\mathrm{rc}\,}}(X)$$ rc ( X ) for sets X that admit a finite certificate.

Felix Happach ◽  
Lisa Hellerstein ◽  
Thomas Lidbetter

We consider a large family of problems in which an ordering (or, more precisely, a chain of subsets) of a finite set must be chosen to minimize some weighted sum of costs. This family includes variations of min sum set cover, several scheduling and search problems, and problems in Boolean function evaluation. We define a new problem, called the min sum ordering problem (MSOP), which generalizes all these problems using a cost and a weight function defined on subsets of a finite set. Assuming a polynomial time α-approximation algorithm for the problem of finding a subset whose ratio of weight to cost is maximal, we show that under very minimal assumptions, there is a polynomial time [Formula: see text]-approximation algorithm for MSOP. This approximation result generalizes a proof technique used for several distinct problems in the literature. We apply this to obtain a number of new approximation results. Summary of Contribution: This paper provides a general framework for min sum ordering problems. Within the realm of theoretical computer science, these problems include min sum set cover and its generalizations, as well as problems in Boolean function evaluation. On the operations research side, they include problems in search theory and scheduling. We present and analyze a very general algorithm for these problems, unifying several previous results on various min sum ordering problems and resulting in new constant factor guarantees for others.

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