dynamic behavior
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-16
K. Watanabe ◽  
A. Zafar ◽  
M. Tomita ◽  
K. Nishikouri

In recent years, there has been serious damage to embankments on liquefied ground because of large earthquakes. To understand such damage, many two-dimensional shaking table model tests have been performed, in both gravitational and centrifugal fields, to investigate the dynamic behavior and residual displacement of embankments and river dikes on liquefiable ground. In recent years, three-dimensional numerical analysis has been used in practical design because it is difficult to consider the complex dynamic behaviors of three-dimensional embankments and the surrounding liquefied ground in a two-dimensional analysis. However, there are only a limited number of cases in which the applicability of three-dimensional analysis has been validated based on comparisons with true values derived from model tests or data from actual disasters. Therefore, in this study, a series of shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of a three-dimensional embankment on liquefiable ground. In addition, the effect of the shaking direction on the seismic behavior of the embankment was evaluated. The experiment revealed that the residual deformation and its dominant direction were significantly affected by the three-dimensional shape and total weight of the embankment, not by the shaking direction. This result indicates that the influence of the three-dimensional shape of the embankment on the deformation behavior cannot be ignored, and that the influence should be properly evaluated in seismic design.

S. P. Challagulla ◽  
C. Parimi ◽  
Ehsan Noroozinejad Farsangi

Computation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Mihai Bugaru ◽  
Andrei Vasile

The aim of this research was to design a physically consistent model for the forced torsional vibrations of automotive driveshafts that considered aspects of the following phenomena: excitation due to the transmission of the combustion engine through the gearbox, excitation due to the road geometry, the quasi-isometry of the automotive driveshaft, the effect of nonuniformity of the inertial moment with respect to the longitudinal axis of the tulip–tripod joint and of the bowl–balls–inner race joint, the torsional rigidity, and the torsional damping of each joint. To resolve the equations of motion describing the forced torsional nonlinear parametric vibrations of automotive driveshafts, a variational approach that involves Hamilton’s principle was used, which considers the isometric nonuniformity, where it is known that the joints of automotive driveshafts are quasi-isometric in terms of the twist angle, even if, in general, they are considered CVJs (constant velocity joints). This effect realizes the link between the terms for the torsional vibrations between the elements of the driveshaft: tripode–tulip, midshaft, and bowl–balls–inner race joint elements. The induced torsional loads (as gearbox torsional moments that enter the driveshaft through the tulip axis) can be of harmonic type, while the reactive torsional loads (as reactive torsional moments that enter the driveshaft through the bowl axis) are impulsive. These effects induce the resulting nonlinear dynamic behavior. Also considered was the effect of nonuniformity on the axial moment of inertia of the tripod–tulip element as well as on the axial moment of inertia of the bowl–balls–inner race joint element, that vary with the twist angle of each element. This effect induces parametric dynamic behavior. Moreover, the torsional rigidity was taken into consideration, as was the torsional damping for each joint of the driveshaft: tripod–joint and bowl–balls–inner race joint. This approach was used to obtain a system of equations of nonlinear partial derivatives that describes the torsional vibrations of the driveshaft as nonlinear parametric dynamic behavior. This model was used to compute variation in the natural frequencies of torsion in the global tulip (a given imposed geometry) using the angle between the tulip–midshaft for an automotive driveshaft designed for heavy-duty SUVs as well as the characteristic amplitude frequency in the region of principal parametric resonance together the method of harmonic balance for the steady-state forced torsional nonlinear vibration of the driveshaft. This model of dynamic behavior for the driveshaft can be used during the early stages of design as well in predicting the durability of automotive driveshafts. In addition, it is important that this model be added in the design algorithm for predicting the comfort elements of the automotive environment to adequately account for this kind of dynamic behavior that induces excitations in the car structure.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 599
Kamal Amin Chebo ◽  
Yehya Temsah ◽  
Zaher Abou Saleh ◽  
Mohamad Darwich ◽  
Ziad Hamdan

In Lebanon and many other countries where structures are vulnerable to impact loads caused by accidental rock falls due to landslides, specifically bridges with hollow core slab, it is mandatory to develop safe and efficient design procedures to design such types of structures to withstand extreme cases of loading. The structural response of concrete members subjected to low velocity high falling weight raised the interest of researchers in the previous years. The effect of impact due to landslide falling rocks on reinforced concrete (RC) slabs has been investigated by many researchers, while very few studied the effect of impact loading on pre-stressed structures, noting that a recent study was conducted at Beirut Arab University which compared the dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete and post-tensioned slabs under impact loading from a 605 kg impactor freely dropped from a height of 20 m. Hollow core slabs are widely used in bridges and precast structures. Thus, studying their behavior due to such hazards becomes inevitable. This study focuses on these types of slabs. For a better understanding of the behavior, a full scale experimental program consists of testing a single span hollow core slab. The specimen has 6000 mm × 1200 mm × 200 mm dimensions with a 100 mm cast in a place topping slab. Successive free fall drops cases from 14 m height will be investigated on the prescribed slab having a span of 6000 m. This series of impacts will be held by hitting the single span hollow core slab at three different locations: center, edge, and near the support. The data from the testing program were used to assess the structural response in terms of experimental observations, maximum impact and inertia forces, structural damage/failure: type and pattern, acceleration response, and structural design recommendations. This research showed that the hollow core slab has a different dynamic behavior compared to the post tensioned and reinforced concrete slabs mentioned in the literature review section.

Kaiyuan Chen ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  
Jia Liu ◽  
Jie Wang ◽  
Zhencheng Lan ◽  

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