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Chang Liu ◽  
Shenghua Zhou ◽  
Chao Zhang ◽  
Yaying Shen ◽  
Xiao-Yan Liu ◽  

It is an important and challenging task to develop new infrared (IR) birefringent materials to promote the development of laser technology. In this work, a novel thioantimonate with the highest...

2021 ◽  
Elliot Rosen ◽  
Oluseyi Fatanmi ◽  
Stephen Y. Wise ◽  
V. Ashutosh Rao ◽  
Vijay K. Singh

Abstract Radiological incidents or terrorist attacks would likely expose civilians and military personnel to high doses of ionizing radiation, leading to the development of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). While the effects and symptoms of high dose radiation exposure have been established, prophylactic treatments and methods for determining the extent of exposure remain limited. We examined the effectiveness of prophylactic administration of a developmental radiation countermeasure, g-tocotrienol (GT3), in a total-body irradiation (TBI) mouse model. CD2F1 mice received GT3 24 h prior to 11 Gy cobalt-60 gamma-irradiation, a supralethal dose for this strain. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis was followed by mass spectrometry and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Analysis revealed a change in expression of 18 proteins in response to TBI, and these changes were reversed with prophylactic treatment of GT3. IPA revealed a network of associated proteins involved in cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and inflammatory response. Of particular interest, significant expression changes in beta-2-glycoprotein 1, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, alpha-2-macroglobulin, complement C3, mannose-binding protein C, and major urinary protein 6 were noted after TBI and reversed with GT3 treatment. This study reports the network and specific serum proteins which could be translated as biomarkers of both radiation injury and protection by radiation countermeasures.

2021 ◽  
M. Ángeles Serrano ◽  
Marián Boguñá

Real networks comprise from hundreds to millions of interacting elements and permeate all contexts, from technology to biology to society. All of them display non-trivial connectivity patterns, including the small-world phenomenon, making nodes to be separated by a small number of intermediate links. As a consequence, networks present an apparent lack of metric structure and are difficult to map. Yet, many networks have a hidden geometry that enables meaningful maps in the two-dimensional hyperbolic plane. The discovery of such hidden geometry and the understanding of its role have become fundamental questions in network science giving rise to the field of network geometry. This Element reviews fundamental models and methods for the geometric description of real networks with a focus on applications of real network maps, including decentralized routing protocols, geometric community detection, and the self-similar multiscale unfolding of networks by geometric renormalization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 932 ◽  
Lukas Zwirner ◽  
Mohammad S. Emran ◽  
Felix Schindler ◽  
Sanjay Singh ◽  
Sven Eckert ◽  

Using complementary experiments and direct numerical simulations, we study turbulent thermal convection of a liquid metal (Prandtl number $\textit {Pr}\approx 0.03$ ) in a box-shaped container, where two opposite square sidewalls are heated/cooled. The global response characteristics like the Nusselt number ${\textit {Nu}}$ and the Reynolds number $\textit {Re}$ collapse if the side height $L$ is used as the length scale rather than the distance $H$ between heated and cooled vertical plates. These results are obtained for various Rayleigh numbers $5\times 10^3\leq {\textit {Ra}}_H\leq 10^8$ (based on $H$ ) and the aspect ratios $L/H=1, 2, 3$ and $5$ . Furthermore, we present a novel method to extract the wind-based Reynolds number, which works particularly well with the experimental Doppler-velocimetry measurements along vertical lines, regardless of their horizontal positions. The extraction method is based on the two-dimensional autocorrelation of the time–space data of the vertical velocity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 932 ◽  
Samuel D. Tomlinson ◽  
Demetrios T. Papageorgiou

It is known that an increased flow rate can be achieved in channel flows when smooth walls are replaced by superhydrophobic surfaces. This reduces friction and increases the flux for a given driving force. Applications include thermal management in microelectronics, where a competition between convective and conductive resistance must be accounted for in order to evaluate any advantages of these surfaces. Of particular interest is the hydrodynamic stability of the underlying basic flows, something that has been largely overlooked in the literature, but is of key relevance to applications that typically base design on steady states or apparent-slip models that approximate them. We consider the global stability problem in the case where the longitudinal grooves are periodic in the spanwise direction. The flow is driven along the grooves by either the motion of a smooth upper lid or a constant pressure gradient. In the case of smooth walls, the former problem (plane Couette flow) is linearly stable at all Reynolds numbers whereas the latter (plane Poiseuille flow) becomes unstable above a relatively large Reynolds number. When grooves are present our work shows that additional instabilities arise in both cases, with critical Reynolds numbers small enough to be achievable in applications. Generally, for lid-driven flows one unstable mode is found that becomes neutral as the Reynolds number increases, indicating that the flows are inviscidly stable. For pressure-driven flows, two modes can coexist and exchange stability depending on the channel height and slip fraction. The first mode remains unstable as the Reynolds number increases and corresponds to an unstable mode of the two-dimensional Rayleigh equation, while the second mode becomes neutrally stable at infinite Reynolds numbers. Comparisons of critical Reynolds numbers with the experimental observations for pressure-driven flows of Daniello et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 21, issue 8, 2009, p. 085103) are encouraging.

2021 ◽  
Hongchao Xie ◽  
Xiangpeng Luo ◽  
Gaihua Ye ◽  
Zhipeng Ye ◽  
Haiwen Ge ◽  

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