A high-index dielectric radome seam is camouflaged with respect to a low-index dielectric radome panel by tuning the seam with carefully engineered metasurfaces. A transmission-line approach is used to model the metasurface-tuned seam and analytically retrieve the corresponding surface impedance, from which the unit-cell design is then tailored. Full-wave simulations and microwave antenna measurements performed on a proof-of-concept prototype validate the undesired scattering suppression effect in the case of normally and obliquely incident transverse electric and transverse magnetic wave illuminations. Robustness of the proposed solution to fabrication tolerances is also reported. The study presents metasurface-tuning as an easily implementable, frequency adjustable, and polarization insensitive solution to reduce the scattering of dielectric mechanical seams and improve the overall transparency performance of radome structures.
Bending stiffness (BS) is one of the two most important mechanical parameters of corrugated board. The second is edge crush resistance (ECT). Both are used in many analytical formulas to assess the load capacity of corrugated cardboard packaging. Therefore, the correct determination of bending stiffness is crucial in the design of corrugated board structures. This paper focuses on the analytical determination of BS based on the known parameters of the constituent papers and the geometry of the corrugated layers. The work analyzes in detail the dependence of the bending stiffness of an asymmetric, five-layer corrugated cardboard on the sample arrangement. A specimen bent so that the layers on the lower wave side are compressed has approximately 10% higher stiffness value. This is due to imperfections, which are particularly important in the case of compression of very thin liners. The study showed that imperfection at the level of a few microns causes noticeable drops in bending stiffness. The method has also been validated by means of experimental data from the literature and simple numerical finite element model (FEM). The obtained compliance of the computational model with the experimental model is very satisfactory. The work also included a critical discussion of the already published data and observations of other scientists in the field.
Electronic products are ever growing in popularity, and tantalum capacitors are heavily used in small electronic products. Spent epoxy-coated solid electrolyte tantalum capacitors, containing about 22 wt.% of tantalum and 8 wt.% of manganese, were treated with selective leaching by hydrochloric acid and chlorination after removing the epoxy resin, and the products converted, respectively, to Mn(OH)2 and TaCl5. The effects of acid type, acid concentration, liquid–solid ratio, and reaction time were investigated to dissolve the manganese. The optimal selective leaching conditions were determined as 3 mol/L of HCl, 40 mL/g at 25 °C for 32 min. Next, residues of selective leaching after washing and drying were heated with ferrous chloride to convert to pure TaCl5. Mixing 48 wt.% of chloride and 52 wt.% of residues for a total of 5 g was conducted to complete the chlorination process in the tube furnace at 450 °C for 3 h. A total of 2.35 g of Ta was collected and the recovery of Ta achieved 94%. Finally, Mn(OH)2 and TaCl5 were separated and purified as the products.
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the durability of building materials, including those based on cementitious binders. Important aspects of durability include the increase of the strength of the cement matrix and enhancement of material resistance to external factors. The use of nanoadditives may be a way to meet these expectations. In the present study, zinc, titanium and copper oxides, used in single and binary systems (to better the effect of their performance), were applied as additives in cement mortars. In the first part of this work, an extensive physicochemical analysis of oxides was carried out, and in the second, their application ranges in cement mortars were determined. The subsequent analyses were employed in determining the physicochemical properties of pristine oxides: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), measurement of the particle size distribution, as well as zeta potential measurement depending on the pH values. Influence on selected physicomechanical parameters of the cement matrix and resistance to the action of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were also examined. Our work indicated that all nanoadditives worsened the mechanical parameters of mortars during the first 3 days of hardening, while after 28 days, an improvement was achieved for zinc and titanium(IV) oxides. Binary systems and copper(II) oxide deteriorated in strength parameters throughout the test period. In contrast, copper(II) oxide showed the best antibacterial activity among all the tested oxide systems. Based on the inhibitory effect of the studied compounds, the following order of microbial susceptibility to inhibition of growth on cement mortars was established (from the most susceptible, to the most resistant): E. coli < S. aureus < C. albicans < B. cereus = P. aeruginosa < P. putida.
This article is devoted to the characterization of a new Co-W-Al alloy prepared by an aluminothermic reaction. This alloy is used for the subsequent preparation of a special composite nanopowder and for the surface coating of aluminum, magnesium, or iron alloys. Due to the very high temperature (2000 °C–3000 °C) required for the reaction, thermite was added to the mixture. Pulverized coal was also added in order to obtain the appropriate metal carbides (Co, W, Ti), which increase hardness, resistance to abrasion, and the corrosion of the coating and have good high temperature properties. The phase composition of the alloy prepared by the aluminothermic reaction showed mainly cobalt, tungsten, and aluminum, as well as small amounts of iron, titanium, and calcium. No carbon was identified using this method. The microstructure of this alloy is characterized by a cobalt matrix with smaller regular and irregular carbide particles doped by aluminum.
The demand for synthetic graft materials in implant dentistry is rising. This systematic review aims to evaluate the survival rate of dental implants placed simultaneously with bone regeneration procedures using the material β-tricalcium phosphate, one of the most promising synthetic graft materials. The electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. There were five randomized clinical trials, one of which was a non-randomized controlled clinical trial and four of which were observational studies without a control group included. Implant survival rate and other clinical, radiographic, and histological parameters did not differ from those of implants placed simultaneously with another type of graft material, or placed in blood clots or natural alveolar ridges. Based on the available literature, β-tricalcium phosphate seems to be a promising graft material in implant dentistry. Nevertheless, more randomized clinical trials, with long follow-up periods, preoperative and postoperative CBCT, and histological analysis, are necessary to assess its long-term behavior.
The aim of the study was to analyze retention protocols and materials for fixed retainers used by clinicians providing orthodontic treatment in Poland. The survey was carried out from February to April 2021. The questionnaire was designed using the Google Forms tool. After validation, the questionnaire was delivered to verified active orthodontists gathered in a closed social media group of 615 members. Finally, 104 answers were received. Answers to individual questions were provided in percentages and tabularized. A chi-squared test of proportion was used to compare: the proportion of clinicians using retainers of different characteristics and the proportions of clinicians indicating the superiority of a given clinical solution. Rectangular steel braided wire was rated as most reliable. However, doctors who declared to use gold chain were mostly solely using this type of wire. Multistranded round wire was rated the worst. Fiber-reinforced composite was mainly used in periodontal patients. The protocols used by Polish orthodontic practitioners relied on double long-term retention with regular follow-up. The most popular material was stainless steel braided rectangular wire bonded with a flowable composite. Most clinicians believed they could maintain the treatment results, but they declared that patients’ cooperation was a challenge.
In this work, more than 70 wt % of ferromanganese slag (containing 40 wt % CaO) was used to synthesize high-calcium, CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) glass ceramics. The effect of SiO2/CaO on the structure, crystallization behavior and microstructure of high-calcium, CMAS, slag glass ceramics was studied by IR, NMR, DSC, XRD and SEM. The results showed that in the high-calcium, CMAS glass ceramics, the main existing forms of silicon–oxygen tetrahedra (Qn) were Q0 and Q1. With the increase in the SiO2/CaO, Qn changed from Q0 and Q1 (main units) to Q1 (main units) and Q2, and then to Q1 and Q2 (main units). The polymerization degree of Qn changed from low to high, making the glass more stable, which led to the increase in crystallization temperature and the decrease in crystallization kinetic constant (k) and frequency factor (υ). At the same time, the change in the Qn structure resulted in a gradual change to the main crystal, from akermanite to diopside–wollastonite.
The growing applications of iron/copper bimetallic composites in various industries are increasing. The relationship between the properties of these materials and manufacturing parameters should be well understood. This paper represents an experimental study to evaluate the effect of reinforcement (steel rod) preheating temperature on the mechanical properties (bond strength, microhardness, and wear resistance) of copper matrix composites (QMMC). In preparing the QMMC samples, the melted copper was poured on a steel rod that had been preheated to various temperatures, namely, room temperature, 600 °C, 800 °C, and 1200 °C. Properties of the QMMC (interface microstructure, interfacial bonding strength, microhardness, and wear) were investigated. The experimental results revealed that the best bond between the copper matrix and steel rod formed only in the composites prepared by preheating the steel rods with temperatures lower than the recrystallization temperature of steel (723 °C). This is because the oxide layer and shrinkage voids (due to the difference in shrinkage between the two metals) at the interface hinder atom diffusion and bond formation at higher temperatures. The microhardness test showed that preheating steel rod to 600 °C gives the highest value among all the samples. Furthermore, the QMMC’s wear behavior confirmed that the optimization of preheating temperature is 600 °C.
This paper presents an attempt to obtain technically valuable lightweight aggregate produced from a mixture of fluidized bed fly ash and post-mining residues. The motivation to take up this study is a problem with the reasonable utilization of huge amounts of ashes produced by power plants in Poland. The ashes still produced and those stored in heaps amount to a tonnage of millions, and new ways to utilize them are desired. A real lack of mineral aggregates (non-renewable resources) demands the search for alternative materials. Using the industrial ashes as aggregates is a possible solution to the two above-mentioned problems. The aim of the study was to produce the lightweight aggregate components and to assess them in terms of their physical and mechanical properties. The components were prepared by mixing, granulation, and sintering at the temperature of over 1170 °C. Evaluation of physical parameters was based on parameters such as bulk density and water absorption. The study of mechanical properties was carried out on the basis of aggregates’ resistance to crushing. The obtained results revealed that using a mixture of the combustion and post-mining residues in the production of a lightweight aggregate is beneficial and results in the formation of a porous and durable structure. The measured resistance to the crushing of the produced aggregates varied from 5.9 MPa to 7.5 MPa. They also showed a high freeze-thaw resistance and good resistance to aggressive environments (bases, acids, salt). The registered properties indicate that the aggregates meet the basic requirements for materials used in construction and road-building. This study has a scientific and didactic value in that it describes the step-by-step process of planning and implementing the production of synthetic mineral aggregates.