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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 601
Author(s):  
Boris B. Straumal ◽  
Roman Kulagin ◽  
Leonid Klinger ◽  
Eugen Rabkin ◽  
Petr B. Straumal ◽  
...  

During severe plastic deformation (SPD), the processes of lattice defect formation as well as their relaxation (annihilation) compete with each other. As a result, a dynamic equilibrium is established, and a steady state is reached after a certain strain value. Simultaneously, other kinetic processes act in opposite directions and also compete with each other during SPD, such as grain refinement/growth, mechanical strengthening/softening, formation/decomposition of solid solution, etc. These competing processes also lead to dynamic equilibrium and result in a steady state (saturation), albeit after different strains. Among these steady-state phenomena, particle fragmentation during the second phase of SPD has received little attention. Available data indicate that precipitate fragmentation slows down with increasing strain, though saturation is achieved at higher strains than in the case of hardness or grain size. Moreover, one can consider the SPD-driven nanocrystallization in the amorphous phase as a process that is opposite to the fragmentation of precipitates. The size of these crystalline nanoprecipitates also saturates after a certain strain. The fragmentation of precipitates during SPD is the topic of this review.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 603
Author(s):  
Natalia Rońda ◽  
Krzysztof Grzelak ◽  
Marek Polański ◽  
Julita Dworecka-Wójcik

This work investigates the effect of layer thickness on the microstructure and mechanical properties of M300 maraging steel produced by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS®) technique. The microstructure was characterized using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were characterized by tensile tests and microhardness measurements. The porosity and mechanical properties were found to be highly dependent on the layer thickness. Increasing the layer thickness increased the porosity of the manufactured parts while degrading their mechanical properties. Moreover, etched samples revealed a fine cellular dendritic microstructure; decreasing the layer thickness caused the microstructure to become fine-grained. Tests showed that for samples manufactured with the chosen laser power, a layer thickness of more than 0.75 mm is too high to maintain the structural integrity of the deposited material.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Author(s):  
Xixi Wu ◽  
Changjie Cai ◽  
Javier Gil ◽  
Elizabeth Jantz ◽  
Yacoub Al Sakka ◽  
...  

Titanium particles embedded on peri-implant tissues are associated with a variety of detrimental effects. Given that the characteristics of these detached fragments (size, concentration, etc.) dictate the potential cytotoxicity and biological repercussions exerted, it is of paramount importance to investigate the properties of these debris. This study compares the characteristics of particles released among different implant systems (Group A: Straumann, Group B: BioHorizons and Group C: Zimmer) during implantoplasty. A novel experimental system was utilized for measuring and collecting particles generated from implantoplasty. A scanning mobility particle sizer, aerodynamic particle sizer, nano micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor, and scanning electron microscope were used to collect and analyze the particles by size. The chemical composition of the particles was analyzed by highly sensitive microanalysis, microstructures by scanning electron microscope and the mechanical properties by nanoindentation equipment. Particles released by implantoplasty showed bimodal size distributions, with the majority of particles in the ultrafine size range (<100 nm) for all groups. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference among all implant systems in terms of the particle number size distribution (p < 0.0001), with the highest concentration in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. Significant differences among all groups (p < 0.0001) were also observed for the other two metrics, with the highest concentration of particle mass and surface area in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. For coarse particles (>1 µm), no significant difference was detected among groups in terms of particle number or mass, but a significantly smaller surface area was found in Group A as compared to Group B (p = 0.02) and Group C (p = 0.005). The 1 first minute of procedures had a higher number concentration compared to the second and third minutes. SEM-EDS analysis showed different morphologies for various implant systems. These results can be explained by the differences in the chemical composition and microstructures of the different dental implants. Group B is softer than Groups A and C due to the laser treatment in the neck producing an increase of the grain size. The hardest implants were those of Group C due to the cold-strained titanium alloy, and consequently they displayed lower release than Groups A and B. Implantoplasty was associated with debris particle release, with the majority of particles at nanometric dimensions. BioHorizons implants released more particles compared to Straumann and Zimmer. Due to the widespread use of implantoplasty, it is of key importance to understand the characteristics of the generated debris. This is the first study to detect, quantify and analyze the debris/particles released from dental implants during implantoplasty including the full range of particle sizes, including both micro- and nano-scales.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 576
Author(s):  
Yen-Wen Shen ◽  
Yuen-Shan Tsai ◽  
Jui-Ting Hsu ◽  
Ming-You Shie ◽  
Heng-Li Huang ◽  
...  

Clinically, a reconstruction plate can be used for the facial repair of patients with mandibular segmental defects, but it cannot restore their chewing function. The main purpose of this research is to design a new three-dimensionally (3D) printed porous titanium mandibular implant with both facial restoration and oral chewing function reconstruction. Its biomechanical properties were examined using both finite element analysis (FEA) and in vitro experiments. Cone beam computed tomography images of the mandible of a patient with oral cancer were selected as a reference to create 3D computational models of the bone and of the 3D-printed porous implant. The pores of the porous implant were circles or hexagons of 1 or 2 mm in size. A nonporous implant was fabricated as a control model. For the FEA, two chewing modes, namely right unilateral molar clench and right group function, were set as loading conditions. Regarding the boundary condition, the displacement of both condyles was fixed in all directions. For the in vitro experiments, an occlusal force (100 N) was applied to the abutment of the 3D-printed mandibular implants with and without porous designs as the loading condition. The porous mandibular implants withstood higher stress and strain than the nonporous mandibular implant, but all stress values were lower than the yield strength of Ti-6Al-4V (800 MPa). The strain value of the bone surrounding the mandibular implant was affected not only by the shape and size of the pores but also by the chewing mode. According to Frost’s mechanostat theory of bone, higher bone strain under the porous implants might help maintain or improve bone quality and bone strength. The findings of this study serve as a biomechanical reference for the design of 3D-printed titanium mandibular implants and require confirmation through clinical investigations.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 594
Author(s):  
Nicoleta Cobîrzan ◽  
Radu Muntean ◽  
Gyorgy Thalmaier ◽  
Raluca-Andreea Felseghi

Masonry units made of clay or Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) are widely used in constructions from Romania and other countries. Masonry units with superior mechanical and thermal characteristics can improve the energy efficiency of buildings, especially when they are used as the main solutions for building envelope construction. Their production in recent years has increased vertiginously to meet the increased demand. Manufactured with diversified geometries, different mechanical and/or thermal characteristics have a high volume in the mass of the building and a major influence in their carbon footprint. Starting from the current context regarding the target imposed by the long-term strategy of built environment decarbonization, the aim of the paper is to analyze the potential of reusing mining waste in the production of masonry units. Mining waste represents the highest share of waste generated at national level and may represent a valuable resource for the construction industry, facilitating the creation of new jobs and support for economic development. This review presents the interest in integrating mining wastes in masonry unit production and the technical characteristics of the masonry units in which they have been used as raw materials in different percentages. Critical assessment framework using SWOT analysis highlights the key sustainability aspects (technical, environmental, social, economic) providing a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages regarding the integration of mining waste as secondary raw materials into masonry units production.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 578
Author(s):  
Agata Lisińska-Czekaj ◽  
Dionizy Czekaj

In the present paper, results of X-ray photoelectron studies of electroceramic thin films of barium strontium titanate, Ba1−xSrxTiO3 (BST), composition deposited on stainless-steel substrates are presented. The thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method. A spin-coating deposition of BST layers with different chemical compositions was utilized so the layer-type structure of (0-2) connectivity was formed. After the deposition, the thin-film samples were heated in air atmosphere at temperature T = 700 °C for 1 h. The surfaces of BST thin films subjected to thermal treatment were studied by X-ray diffraction. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the perovskite-type phase for all grown thin-film samples. The oxidation states of the elements were examined by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectra as well as high-resolution spectra (photo-peaks) of the main metallic elements, such as Ti, Ba, and Sr, were compared for the layer-type structures, differing in the deposition sequence of the barium strontium titanate layers constituting the BST thin film.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 574
Author(s):  
Zukhra Gareeva ◽  
Anatoly Zvezdin ◽  
Konstantin Zvezdin ◽  
Xiangming Chen

In this article, we performed symmetry analysis of perovskite-based multiferroics: bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3)-like, orthochromites (RCrO3), and Ruddlesden–Popper perovskites (Ca3Mn2O7-like), being the typical representatives of multiferroics of the trigonal, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal families, and we explored the effect of crystallographic distortions on magnetoelectric properties. We determined the principal order parameters for each of the considered structures and obtained their invariant combinations consistent with the particular symmetry. This approach allowed us to analyze the features of the magnetoelectric effect observed during structural phase transitions in BixR1−xFeO3 compounds and to show that the rare-earth sublattice has an impact on the linear magnetoelectric effect allowed by the symmetry of the new structure. It was shown that the magnetoelectric properties of orthochromites are attributed to the couplings between the magnetic and electric dipole moments arising near Cr3+ ions due to distortions linked with rotations and deformations of the CrO6 octahedra. For the first time, such a symmetry consideration was implemented in the analysis of the Ruddlesden–Popper structures, which demonstrates the possibility of realizing the magnetoelectric effect in the Ruddlesden–Popper phases containing magnetically active cations, and allows the estimation of the conditions required for its optimization.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 584
Author(s):  
Agnieszka Brochocka ◽  
Aleksandra Nowak ◽  
Paweł Kozikowski

In this article, we present polymer non-woven fabrics with the addition of carbon sorbents being tested to estimate the breakthrough time and efficient protection against vapors present in smog. For this purpose, three substances were selected, which constitute an inhalation hazard and are smog components: cyclohexane, toluene, and sulfur dioxide. It was demonstrated that an increased quantity of carbon sorbent in polymeric filters significantly prolongs the breakthrough time. However, high sorbent quantities may increase the filter surface mass and air flow resistance. To optimize the protective parameters with functionality, a compromise between the two has to be found. By comparing the breakthrough times for different carbon sorbent quantities, the optimal filter composition was elaborated. The analyzed non-woven fabrics were manufactured by the melt-blown process and filled with ball-milled carbon sorbents supplied directly into the fabric blowing nozzle. Both protective performance and textural properties were analyzed for two commercially available carbon sorbents. Furthermore, it was proven that high values of sorbent-specific surface area translates directly into greater filter performance.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 579
Author(s):  
Paweł Kościelniak ◽  
Marek Dębosz ◽  
Marcin Wieczorek ◽  
Jan Migdalski ◽  
Monika Szufla ◽  
...  

A solid-contact ion-selective electrode was developed for detecting potassium in environmental water. Two versions of a stable cadmium acylhydrazone-based metal organic framework, i.e., JUK-13 and JUK-13_H2O, were used for the construction of the mediation layer. The potentiometric and electrochemical characterizations of the proposed electrodes were carried out. The implementation of the JUK-13_H2O interlayer is shown to improve the potentiometric response and stability of measured potential. The electrode exhibits a good Nernstian slope (56.30 mV/decade) in the concentration range from 10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1 with a detection limit of 2.1 µmol L−1. The long-term potential stability shows a small drift of 0.32 mV h−1 over 67 h. The electrode displays a good selectivity comparable to ion-selective electrodes with the same membrane. The K-JUK-13_H2O-ISE was successfully applied for the determination of potassium in three certified reference materials of environmental water with great precision (RSD < 3.00%) and accuracy (RE < 3.00%).


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 586
Author(s):  
Nannan Zhang ◽  
Nan Cheng ◽  
Qing Liu

The journal retracts the article “Functionalized Biomass Carbon-Based Adsorbent for Simultaneous Removal of Pb2+ and MB in Wastewater” [...]


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