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Published By Springer-Verlag

1432-1793, 0025-3162

2022 ◽  
Vol 169 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Olga Lyashevska ◽  
Deirdre Brophy ◽  
Steve Wing ◽  
David G. Johns ◽  
Damien Haberlin ◽  
...  

AbstractAlmost nothing is known about the historical abundance of the ocean sunfish. Yet as an ecologically and functionally important taxa, understanding changes in abundance may be a useful indicator of how our seas are responding to anthropogenic changes including overfishing and climate change. Within this context, sightings from a coastal bird observatory (51.26$$^\circ$$ ∘ N, 9.30$$^\circ$$ ∘ W) over a 47 year period (from April to October 1971–2017) provided the first long-term index of sunfish abundance. Using a general linear mixed effect model with a hurdle to deal with imperfect detectability and to model trends, a higher probability of detecting sunfish was found in the 1990s and 2000s. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) phytoplankton color indices and the annual mean position of the 13 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C sea surface isotherm were significantly correlated with the probability of detecting sunfish. An increase in siphonophore abundance (as measured by the CPR) was also documented. However, this increase occurred 10–15 years after the sunfish increase and was not significantly correlated with sunfish abundance. Our results suggest that the observed increase in sunfish sightings is evidence of a range expansion because it was significantly correlated with the mean position of the 13 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C isotherm which moved northwards by over 200 km. Furthermore, the observed increase in sunfish occured  10 years before sunfish sightings are documented in Icelandic and Norwegian waters, and was concurrent with well-known range expansions for other fish species during the 1990s. This study demonstrates how sustained citizen science projects can provide unique insights on the historical abundance of this enigmatic species.


2022 ◽  
Vol 169 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Belinda K. Goddard ◽  
Alistair Becker ◽  
David Harasti ◽  
James A. Smith ◽  
Roshni C. Subramaniam ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 169 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Karsten Reise ◽  
Dagmar Lackschewitz ◽  
K. Mathias Wegner

AbstractBare sandy flats at and below low tide level of the Wadden Sea (eastern North Sea, European Atlantic) were observed in 2020 to have been invaded by an introduced grass-like alga, Vaucheria cf. velutina (Xanthophyceae). A dense algal turf accumulated and stabilized mud, where resident seniors of the lugworm Arenicola marina had reworked rippled sand. Algae and worms were incompatible. Initially, rising patches with algal turf alternated with bare pits where lugworms crowded. Their bioturbation inhibited young algae, while the felt of established algal rhizoids clogged feeding funnels of worm burrows. Eventually, a mosaic pattern of competitors gave way to a coherent algal turf without lugworms. Concomitantly, a rich small-sized benthic fauna took advantage of the novel algal turf. This exotic Vaucheria may have the potential for drastically altering the ecological web at the lower shore.


2021 ◽  
Vol 169 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lucía Díaz-Abad ◽  
Natassia Bacco-Mannina ◽  
Fernando Miguel Madeira ◽  
João Neiva ◽  
Tania Aires ◽  
...  

AbstractUnderstanding sea turtle diets can help conservation planning, but their trophic ecology is complex due to life history characteristics such as ontogenetic shifts and large foraging ranges. Studying sea turtle diet is challenging, particularly where ecological foraging observations are not possible. Here, we test a new minimally invasive method for the identification of diet items in sea turtles. We fingerprinted diet content using DNA from esophageal and cloacal swab samples by metabarcoding the 18S rRNA gene. This approach was tested on samples collected from green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from a juvenile foraging aggregation in the Bijagós archipelago in Guinea-Bissau. Esophagus samples (n = 6) exhibited a higher dietary richness (11 ± 5 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) per sample; average ± SD) than cloacal ones (n = 5; 8 ± 2 ASVs). Overall, the diet was dominated by red macroalgae (Rhodophyta; 48.2 ± 16.3% of all ASVs), with the main food item in the esophagus and cloaca being a red alga belonging to the Rhodymeniophycidae subclass (35.1 ± 27.2%), followed by diatoms (Bacillariophyceae; 7.5 ± 7.3%), which were presumably consumed incidentally. Seagrass and some invertebrates were also present. Feeding on red algae was corroborated by field observations and barcoding of food items available in the benthic habitat, validating the approach for identifying diet content. We conclude that identification of food items using metabarcoding of esophageal swabs is useful for a better understanding of the relationships between the feeding behavior of sea turtles and their environment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 169 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ellen Martins Camara ◽  
Magda Fernandes de Andrade-Tubino ◽  
Taynara Pontes Franco ◽  
Leonardo Mitrano Neves ◽  
Luciano Neves dos Santos ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 169 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Madeline Steinberg ◽  
Jean-Baptiste Juhel ◽  
Virginie Marques ◽  
Clara Péron ◽  
Régis Hocdé ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 169 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ariel Adriano Chi-Espínola ◽  
María Eugenia Vega-Cendejas

2021 ◽  
Vol 169 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Megan F. Mickle ◽  
Dennis M. Higgs

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