predator prey
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2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
Andrea Marcello Mambuca ◽  
Chiara Cammarota ◽  
Izaak Neri

Complexity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Y. Tian ◽  
H. M. Li

In presence of predator population, the prey population may significantly change their behavior. Fear for predator population enhances the survival probability of prey population, and it can greatly reduce the reproduction of prey population. In this study, we propose a predator-prey fishery model introducing the cost of fear into prey reproduction with Holling type-II functional response and prey-dependent harvesting and investigate the global dynamics of the proposed model. For the system without harvest, it is shown that the level of fear may alter the stability of the positive equilibrium, and an expression of fear critical level is characterized. For the harvest system, the existence of the semitrivial order-1 periodic solution and positive order- q ( q ≥ 1 ) periodic solution is discussed by the construction of a Poincaré map on the phase set, and the threshold conditions are given, which can not only transform state-dependent harvesting into a cycle one but also provide a possibility to determine the harvest frequency. In addition, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted harvest policy, the threshold condition for the stability of the order- q periodic solution is given. Meanwhile, to achieve a good economic profit, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum harvest level is obtained. Mathematical findings have been validated in numerical simulation by MATLAB. Different effects of different harvest levels and different fear levels have been demonstrated by depicting figures in numerical simulation using MATLAB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sébastien M. J. Portalier ◽  
Gregor F. Fussmann ◽  
Michel Loreau ◽  
Mehdi Cherif

First derivations of the functional response were mechanistic, but subsequent uses of these functions tended to be phenomenological. Further understanding of the mechanisms underpinning predator-prey relationships might lead to novel insights into functional response in natural systems. Because recent consideration of the physical properties of the environment has improved our understanding of predator-prey interactions, we advocate the use of physics-based approaches for the derivation of the functional response from first principles. These physical factors affect the functional response by constraining the ability of both predators and prey to move according to their size. A physics-based derivation of the functional response should thus consider the movement of organisms in relation to their physical environment. One recent article presents a model along these criteria. As an initial validation of our claim, we use a slightly modified version of this model to derive the classical parameters of the functional response (i.e., attack rate and handling time) of aquatic organisms, as affected by body size, buoyancy, water density and viscosity. We compared the predictions to relevant data. Our model provided good fit for most parameters, but failed to predict handling time. Remarkably, this is the only parameter whose derivation did not rely on physical principles. Parameters in the model were not estimated from observational data. Hence, systematic discrepancies between predictions and real data point immediately to errors in the model. An added benefit to functional response derivation from physical principles is thus to provide easy ways to validate or falsify hypotheses about predator-prey relationships.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Zaileha Md Ali ◽  
Ezmir Faiz Mohd Puard ◽  
Muhamad Hariz Sudin ◽  
Nur Aziean Mohd Idris

Wastewater treatment is essential to preserve the ecosystem and to ensure water resources are uncontaminated. This paper presents the Lotka-Volterra model of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the interaction between predator-prey and substrate. The dimensionless ordinary differential equations of the model are solved using the 4th Order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) in MATLAB®. This study discusses the behaviour parameters of predators, prey and substrate. The results are shown graphically for different values of each parameter. Hence, the biological reaction of clean water from the interaction of predator-prey and substrate in wastewater treatment is identified. The higher the concentration of prey, the faster the concentration of substrate reaches 0 with and without the natural death of prey. The clean water will be produced whenever the concentration of prey and the concentration of predator are in balance regardless of the natural death rate. Stability analysis using the Jacobian matrix at the equilibrium point is also performed to determine the stability of the system.

Complexity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Caiyun Wang ◽  
Yongyong Pei ◽  
Yaqun Niu ◽  
Ruiqiang He

Spatial predator-prey models have been studied by researchers for many years, because the exact distributions of the population can be well illustrated via pattern formation. In this paper, amplitude equations of a spatial Holling–Tanner predator-prey model are studied via multiple scale analysis. First, by amplitude equations, we obtain the corresponding intervals in which different kinds of patterns will be onset. Additionally, we get the conclusion that pattern transitions of the predator are induced by the increasing rate of conversion into predator biomass. Specifically, pattern transitions of the predator between distinct Turing pattern structures vary in an orderly manner: from spotted patterns to stripe patterns, and finally to black-eye patterns. Moreover, it is discovered that pattern transitions of prey can be induced by cross-diffusion; that is, patterns of prey transmit from spotted patterns to stripe patterns and finally to a mixture of spot and stripe patterns. Meanwhile, it is found that both effects of cross-diffusion and interaction between the prey and predator can lead to the complicated phenomenon of dynamics in the system of biology.

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