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Aérica C. Nazareno ◽  
Iran J. O. da Silva ◽  
Eduardo F. Delgado ◽  
Miguel Machado ◽  
Luiz O. Pradella

ABSTRACT The inclusion of environmental enrichment in conventional broiler rearing can increase mobility, bone mass and muscle. This research aimed to evaluate the use of environmental enrichment in the rearing of broilers at different ages and its influence on performance, morphometry, yield and weight of the parts. It was used the completely randomized design in split-plot scheme, being the plots the treatments presence (T1) and absence (T2) of environmental enrichment and the subplots the broiler ages (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days), with 56 chicks in each treatment (T1 and T2). Data obtained were analyzed by the linear effect model of fixed effects and compared by Tukey’s test of means. The animals were raised in a controlled environment, divided into four boxes with dimensions: 1.5 × 1.0 × 0.7 m, containing rice straw bed. In T1 a ladder with a perch on top was used, distributed every 1.5 m2. Environmental enrichment used did not influence broiler’s zootechnical performance. Broilers’ morphometric properties, parts weight and body weight increased due to environmental enrichment and, improvement was observed in chicks rearing’s final phase. The environmental enrichment was beneficial for muscle and bone mass gain in the main commercial parts of the chicken carcass, in addition to reducing the allometric coefficient of the breasts in chickens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 169 (2) ◽  
Olga Lyashevska ◽  
Deirdre Brophy ◽  
Steve Wing ◽  
David G. Johns ◽  
Damien Haberlin ◽  

AbstractAlmost nothing is known about the historical abundance of the ocean sunfish. Yet as an ecologically and functionally important taxa, understanding changes in abundance may be a useful indicator of how our seas are responding to anthropogenic changes including overfishing and climate change. Within this context, sightings from a coastal bird observatory (51.26$$^\circ$$ ∘ N, 9.30$$^\circ$$ ∘ W) over a 47 year period (from April to October 1971–2017) provided the first long-term index of sunfish abundance. Using a general linear mixed effect model with a hurdle to deal with imperfect detectability and to model trends, a higher probability of detecting sunfish was found in the 1990s and 2000s. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) phytoplankton color indices and the annual mean position of the 13 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C sea surface isotherm were significantly correlated with the probability of detecting sunfish. An increase in siphonophore abundance (as measured by the CPR) was also documented. However, this increase occurred 10–15 years after the sunfish increase and was not significantly correlated with sunfish abundance. Our results suggest that the observed increase in sunfish sightings is evidence of a range expansion because it was significantly correlated with the mean position of the 13 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C isotherm which moved northwards by over 200 km. Furthermore, the observed increase in sunfish occured  10 years before sunfish sightings are documented in Icelandic and Norwegian waters, and was concurrent with well-known range expansions for other fish species during the 1990s. This study demonstrates how sustained citizen science projects can provide unique insights on the historical abundance of this enigmatic species.

Lely Indriaty ◽  

This study aimed at analyzing three different turnovers of current asset elements: the inventory turnover, the cash turnover, and the receivable turnover on profitability. Data is taken in the form of financial statements from the public companies of the telecommunication sector during four quarters of 2020. The panel data is processed from 9 companies or 36 observations using the Eview9 application and produced the fixed effect model as the best regression. The results indicate that the cash turnover has a significantly positive effect on profitability, whereas the inventory turnover and the receivable turnover have not significantly any effect on profitability. Therefore, the study concluded that the cash turnover was the one of current assets turnover that effected on the profitability of the public company telecommunication sector in Indonesia. It implied to the public companies of telecommunication sectors to choose the appropriate turnover model to achieve the maximum profitability during the Covid-19 pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Albasita Syafna Al'azhary ◽  
Suherman Suherman ◽  
Agung Dharmawan Buchdadi

The object of this research focuses on executive compensation, which is a form of appreciation for the agent’s contribution as the party responsible for the company performance and the improvement of the walfare of the principals. The aims of this study is to determine the effect of profitability and leverage on executive compensation in non financial companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2017 – 2019. Population of this study is non financial companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2017 – 2019 with a sample by non financial listed in Kompas100 index to represent the existing population. Independent variables used in this study are profitability which is measured by return on assets (ROA) and leverage which is measured by debt to equity ratio (DER). Dependent variable used in this study is executive compensation which is measured by total remuneration of president director. This study also used control variables such as executive age, executive gender and executive tenure. The sampling method of this study is a purposive sampling. The research model used is panel data with fixed effect model approach. The findings have shown that profitability has a negative significant effect on executive compensation. It is also noted that the lower level of the company’s debt, the larger the amount of executive compensation. These findings shed the light on research on agency theory that compensation on performance is not valid in Indonesia.

Angiology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 000331972110596
Lei Zuo ◽  
Jun Huang ◽  
Hongyue Zhang ◽  
Bing Huang ◽  
Xiaoyi Wu ◽  

The association between bilirubin (BIL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to evaluate this association in the general population. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus databases through to September 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to assess study quality. The pooled effect estimate was calculated by the fixed-effect model or random-effect model. We included 12 prospective studies (368 567 participants). The pooled risk ratio of CVD for the lowest vs highest groups of BIL levels was .75 (95% CI: .58-.97) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 87.5%, P < .001). Similar associations were observed for coronary heart disease and stroke. We further performed a “dose-response” meta-analysis, and a significant U-shaped relationship between circulating (most values were serum bilirubin, but a few were plasma bilirubin) BIL and CVD ( P < .01) was observed. The lowest risk of CVD events was observed in participants with a BIL of 17-20 µmol/L in serum and/or plasma. In conclusion, there was a U-shaped dose-response relationship between BIL and CVD, especially for men. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and identify the mechanisms involved as well as any prognostic or therapeutic potential.

Fernando Núñez ◽  
Ángel Arcos-Vargas ◽  
Carlos Usabiaga ◽  
Pablo Álvarez-de-Toledo

AbstractThis study analyzes the determinants of the annual compensation of directors belonging to the boards of the Spanish companies that constitute the IBEX 35 stock index. We investigate the importance of observed and unobserved heterogeneity in explaining director compensation. Based on a three-level mixed effect model, our analysis includes time-invariant random effects at company and manager level as determinants of director pay. We find that company effects explain 30% of the variation in director pay, while company and director effects taken together explain 77% of that variation. Our findings suggest that the characteristics of the company, in terms of activity sector, size and financial performance, and the professional attributes of the director (especially the role within the board), influence the compensation received. In addition, some directors and companies show random effects (either positive or negative) that significantly separate them from the expected compensation estimated from the fixed part of the model.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Jinhua Pan ◽  
Kezhong A ◽  
Zhixi Liu ◽  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Zhiyin Xu ◽  

(1) Background: It is important to improve vaccination strategies and immunization programs to achieve herd immunity to infectious diseases. (2) Methods: To assess the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination, we conducted face-to-face surveys and online surveys in Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Qinghai provinces. A fixed-effect model and a random effects model were used to analyze factors associated with the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. (3) Findings: We initially recruited 3173 participants, 3172 participants completed the full questionnaire (the response rate was nearly 100%), of which 2169 were valid questionnaires, with an effective rate of 87.3%. The results indicated that 82.6% of participants were willing to receive vaccination when it was available in the community, and 57.2% of deliverymen, 43.3% of medical workers, 78.2% of parents of primary and secondary school children, and 72.2% of parents of preschool children were willing to receive vaccination. The models showed that participants who were male (female vs. male: OR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.12, 1.98)), 60 to 69 years-old (60–69 vs. <30: OR = 0.52, 95% CI (0.29, 0.92)), had less education (medium vs. low: OR = 1.50, 95% CI (1.05, 2.23)), had good health status (good vs. low: OR = 0.36, 95% CI (0.15, 0.88)), and had positive attitudes and trust (OR = 0.14, 95% CI (0.10, 0.20)) in vaccines approved by the National Health Commission were more likely to accept vaccination. Participants also had an increased vaccination acceptance if it was recommended by government sources, doctors, relatives, or friends. Most participants learned about COVID-19 vaccination from television, radio, and newspapers, followed by community or hospital campaigns and the internet. (4) Conclusions: Government sources and doctors could increase the acceptance of vaccination by promoting the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccination by the use of mass media and emphasizing the necessity of vaccination for everyone.

Muliza Muliza

This study aims to see the effect of Village Fund and Gross Domestic Regional Product on poverty in districts / cities in Aceh Province during the 2017-2019 period. To analyze the data, the method used is panel data regression analysis with the estimation of model parameters using a fixed effect model (FEM). The results showed that the village funds variable did not have a significant effect on poverty, this happened because most of the village funds were allocated more to the infrastructure development sector, causing village funds to still not have a direct effect on reducing poverty. The Gross Domestic Regional Product variable has a negative but significant effect on poverty in the District / City of Aceh Province, which means that with an increase in Gross Domestic Regional Product it will significantly affect the reduction of poverty levels in Aceh Province.

Aviel Cogan ◽  
Tobias Pret ◽  
Melissa S. Cardon

While it is well-established that entrepreneurs benefit from social support, little is known about how and when instrumental and emotional support from household members facilitate entrepreneurial action and persistence. Through a longitudinal, qualitative study, we develop a conceptual framework that shows how social support from the household becomes an integral part of the everyday activities of entrepreneurs. In contrast to the perception of social support as static, our findings illustrate it as a dynamic, ongoing process which is core to business start-up and growth over time. We also challenge the perspectives that households are simply repositories of resources and entrepreneurs passive recipients of support by demonstrating that social support is necessarily interactive, whereby entrepreneurs and households play a collaborative role in entrepreneurship. Finally, we join the debate concerning mechanisms of social support by suggesting that the main effect model and buffering hypothesis are not contradictory, but are instead interdependent.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 225
Seetha Anitha ◽  
David Ian Givens ◽  
Kowsalya Subramaniam ◽  
Shweta Upadhyay ◽  
Joanna Kane-Potaka ◽  

Undernutrition, such as stunting and underweight, is a major public health concern, which requires multi-sectoral attention. Diet plays a key role in growth and should optimally supply all required nutrients to support the growth. While millets (defined broadly to include sorghum) are traditional foods, and climate smart nutritious crops, which are grown across Africa and Asia, they have not been mainstreamed like rice, wheat, and maize. Diversifying staples with millets can potentially provide more macro and micro nutrients, compared to the mainstream crops. However, there is little known scientific evidence to prove millets’ efficacy on growth. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to collate evidence of the benefits of millets in improving the growth of children. Eight eligible randomized feeding trials were included in the meta-analysis. Results from the randomized effect model showed a significant effect (p < 0.05) of millet-based diets on mean height (+28.2%) (n = 8), weight (n = 9) (+26%), mid upper arm circumference (n = 5) (+39%) and chest circumference (n = 5) (+37%) in comparison to regular rice-based diets over for the period of 3 months to 4.5 years, which was based on largely substituting rice with millets. When an enhanced and diverse diet was served, replacing rice with millet had only minimal growth improvement on chest circumference (p < 0.05). The quality assessment using GRADE shows that the evidence used for this systematic review and meta-analysis had moderate quality, based on eight scoring criteria. These results demonstrate the value of adding millet as the staple for undernourished communities. Further understanding of the efficacy of millets on growth in a wider range of diets is important to develop appropriate dietary programs and improve the nutritional status of various age groups across Africa and Asia.

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