mixed effect
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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 48-57
Sina Juliana Hauber ◽  
Simone Lucia Maier ◽  
Opeyemi Adedoja ◽  
Mirijam Gaertner ◽  
Sjirk Geerts

2022 ◽  
Vol 169 (2) ◽  
Olga Lyashevska ◽  
Deirdre Brophy ◽  
Steve Wing ◽  
David G. Johns ◽  
Damien Haberlin ◽  

AbstractAlmost nothing is known about the historical abundance of the ocean sunfish. Yet as an ecologically and functionally important taxa, understanding changes in abundance may be a useful indicator of how our seas are responding to anthropogenic changes including overfishing and climate change. Within this context, sightings from a coastal bird observatory (51.26$$^\circ$$ ∘ N, 9.30$$^\circ$$ ∘ W) over a 47 year period (from April to October 1971–2017) provided the first long-term index of sunfish abundance. Using a general linear mixed effect model with a hurdle to deal with imperfect detectability and to model trends, a higher probability of detecting sunfish was found in the 1990s and 2000s. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) phytoplankton color indices and the annual mean position of the 13 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C sea surface isotherm were significantly correlated with the probability of detecting sunfish. An increase in siphonophore abundance (as measured by the CPR) was also documented. However, this increase occurred 10–15 years after the sunfish increase and was not significantly correlated with sunfish abundance. Our results suggest that the observed increase in sunfish sightings is evidence of a range expansion because it was significantly correlated with the mean position of the 13 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C isotherm which moved northwards by over 200 km. Furthermore, the observed increase in sunfish occured  10 years before sunfish sightings are documented in Icelandic and Norwegian waters, and was concurrent with well-known range expansions for other fish species during the 1990s. This study demonstrates how sustained citizen science projects can provide unique insights on the historical abundance of this enigmatic species.

Fernando Núñez ◽  
Ángel Arcos-Vargas ◽  
Carlos Usabiaga ◽  
Pablo Álvarez-de-Toledo

AbstractThis study analyzes the determinants of the annual compensation of directors belonging to the boards of the Spanish companies that constitute the IBEX 35 stock index. We investigate the importance of observed and unobserved heterogeneity in explaining director compensation. Based on a three-level mixed effect model, our analysis includes time-invariant random effects at company and manager level as determinants of director pay. We find that company effects explain 30% of the variation in director pay, while company and director effects taken together explain 77% of that variation. Our findings suggest that the characteristics of the company, in terms of activity sector, size and financial performance, and the professional attributes of the director (especially the role within the board), influence the compensation received. In addition, some directors and companies show random effects (either positive or negative) that significantly separate them from the expected compensation estimated from the fixed part of the model.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-217041
Talat Islam ◽  
Jessica Braymiller ◽  
Sandrah P Eckel ◽  
Feifei Liu ◽  
Alayna P Tackett ◽  

RationaleDespite high prevalence of e-cigarette use (vaping), little is currently known regarding the health effects of secondhand nicotine vape exposure.ObjectiveTo investigate whether exposure to secondhand nicotine vape exposure is associated with adverse respiratory health symptoms among young adults.MethodWe investigated the effect of secondhand nicotine vape exposure on annually reported wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath in the prospective Southern California Children Health Study cohort. Data were collected from study participants (n=2097) with repeated annual surveys from 2014 (average age: 17.3 years) to 2019 (average age: 21.9). We used mixed effect logistic regression to evaluate the association between secondhand nicotine vape and respiratory symptoms after controlling for relevant confounders.ResultsPrevalence of secondhand nicotine vape increased from 11.7% to 15.6% during the study period in this population. Prevalence of wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath ranged from 12.3% to 14.9%, 19.4% to 26.0% and 16.5% to 18.1%, respectively, during the study period. Associations of secondhand nicotine vape exposure with bronchitic symptoms (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84) and shortness of breath (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.21) were observed after controlling for vaping, active and passive exposure to tobacco or cannabis, and demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity and parental education). Stronger associations were observed when analysis was restricted to participants who were neither smokers nor vapers. There were no associations with wheezing after adjustment for confounders.ConclusionSecondhand nicotine vape exposure was associated with increased risk of bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath among young adults.

2022 ◽  
Ji Zhou ◽  
Ruoyi Lei ◽  
Jianming Xu ◽  
Peng Li ◽  
Xiaofang Ye ◽  

Abstract BackgroundFine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 mm (PM2.5) has been reported to be an important risk factor for asthma. Our study was designed to evaluate the relationship between air PM2.5 and lung function among children with asthma in Shanghai, China. MethodsFrom 2016 to 2019, a total of 70 Chinese children aged 4 to 14 in Pudong, Shanghai were recruited for this panel study. Upon entry to the group, questionnaire was used to collect basic information, and the lung function covering forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were carried out for each child more than two times during follow-up. Meanwhile, the simultaneous daily air atmospheric pollutants and meteorological data were collected. The linear mixed effect (LME) model was used to assess the relationship between air pollutants and lung function adjusting other covariates like sex, age, season and so on. ResultsA significantly negative association was found between PM2.5 level and lung function in children with asthma. In the single-pollutant model, the largest effect of PM2.5 on lung function were found on lag 0-2, FVC and FEV1 decreased by 0.91% [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.75, -0.07] and 1.05% (95% CI: -2.09, 0.00) for every 10 mg/m3 increase of PM2.5. In the multi-pollution model (adjusted PM2.5+SO2+O3), the maximum effect of PM2.5 on FVC and FEV1 also appeared on lag 0-2, FVC and FEV1 decreased by 1.57% (95% CI: -2.69, -0.44) and 1.67% (95% CI: -3.05, -0.26) for every 10 mg/m3 increase of PM2.5, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, boys, children and hot season more were sensitive. ConclusionThe short-term exposure of ambient PM2.5 is a risk factor for the lung function of children with asthma, particularly in boys, preschoolers (<6 years old) and in the hot season.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Patrick Heller ◽  
Larisa Morosan ◽  
Deborah Badoud ◽  
Manon Laubscher ◽  
Lisa Jimenez Olariaga ◽  

Background: Our main objective was to provide estimates of the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities among youths in a juvenile detention center in Geneva, Switzerland. We also aimed to investigate potential positive effects of intensive psychotherapeutic and educational services this center provides. Finally, we examined psychiatric care prior to and after custody as well as the evolution of the youths' mental health during detention.Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study including a group of incarcerated (n = 86) and a group of non-incarcerated (n = 169) youths (12–18 years old). Measures included diagnoses of psychiatric disorders, cognitive functions, trauma, psychopathic traits and the Youth Self-Report (aggressive behavior, attentional disorders, criminal behavior, social withdrawal, anxiety, depression and somatic complaints) collected at baseline and at discharge for the incarcerated group. Data were analyzed using mixed-effect models.Results: Psychiatric disorders were prevalent in the incarcerated group (82.6, 95% CI: 71.6–90.7%), but young people also often suffered from several disorders simultaneously. Two-thirds of the incarcerated participants had a diagnosis of two or more psychiatric disorders. Regarding health care, most incarcerated participants (79.1%) had psychiatric care prior to detention. The planned care after detention was associated with psychiatric comorbidities, care being more likely planned for those with comorbidities (p = 0.030). Compared to the non-incarcerated group, the incarcerated group had lower scores on cognitive functioning (p &lt; 0.001) and higher scores on trauma (p &lt; 0.021) and psychopathic traits (p &lt; 0.034). The youths' stay in the detention center was associated with a positive change of mental health, with externalized problems being significantly reduced at the end of their stay (p = 0.017).Conclusion: Our findings showed that youths in conflict with the law are characterized by (1) their internal vulnerabilities: a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric comorbidities, lower cognitive functions, externalized problems and psychopathic traits; (2) environmental factors: victims of violence and sexual abuse; and (3) their psychiatric history. Besides, the evolution of the most prevalent issues was favorable over time, which puts into question the usual perspective about the deleterious effect of detention.

2022 ◽  
Tora Söderström Gaden ◽  
Claire Ghetti ◽  
Ingrid Kvestad ◽  
Łucja Bieleninik ◽  
Andreas Størksen Stordal ◽  

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short-term effects of music therapy (MT) for premature infants and their caregivers on mother-infant bonding, parental anxiety, and maternal depression. METHODS: Parallel, pragmatic, randomized controlled-trial conducted in 7 level III NICUs and 1 level IV NICU in 5 countries enrolling premature infants (&lt;35 weeks gestational age at birth) and their parents. MT included 3 sessions per week with parent-led, infant-directed singing supported by a music therapist. Primary outcome was mother-infant bonding as measured by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) at discharge from NICU. Secondary outcomes were parents’ symptoms of anxiety measured by General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and maternal depression measured by Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Group differences at the assessment timepoint of discharge from hospital were tested by linear mixed effect models (ANCOVA). RESULTS: From August 2018 to April 2020, 213 families were enrolled in the study, of whom 108 were randomly assigned to standard care and 105 to MT. Of the participants, 208 of 213 (98%) completed treatment and assessments. Participants in the MT group received a mean (SD) of 10 sessions (5.95), and 87 of 105 participants (83%) received the minimum of 6 sessions. The estimated group effect (95% confidence interval) for PBQ was −0.61 (−1.82 to 0.59). No significant differences between groups were found (P = .32). No significant effects for secondary outcomes or subgroups were found. CONCLUSIONS: Parent-led, infant-directed singing supported by a music therapist resulted in no significant differences between groups in mother-infant bonding, parental anxiety, or maternal depression at discharge.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 127
Michele Ricci ◽  
Flavia Gasperi ◽  
Isabella Endrizzi ◽  
Leonardo Menghi ◽  
Danny Cliceri ◽  

Trentingrana hard cheese is a geographic specification of the PDO Grana Padano. It is produced according to an internal regulation by many cooperative dairy factories in the Trentino region (northern Italy), using a semi-artisanal process (the only allowed ingredients are milk, salt, and rennet). Within the PSR project TRENTINGRANA, colorimetric and textural measurements have been collected from 317 cheese wheels, which were sampled bi-monthly from all the consortium dairies (n = 15) within the timeframe of two years, to estimate the effect on physical properties related to the season of the year and the dairy factory implant. To estimate the effect of the dairy and the time of the year, considering the internal variability of each cheese wheel, a linear mixed-effect model combined with a simultaneous component analysis (LMM-ASCA) is proposed. Results show that all the factors have a significant effect on the colorimetric and textural properties of the cheese. There are five clusters of dairies producing cheese with similar properties, three different couples of months of the year when the cheese produced is significantly different from all the others, and the effect of the geometry of the cheese wheel is reported as well.

2022 ◽  
Martin Girard ◽  
Marie-Hélène Roy Cardinal ◽  
Michaël Chassé ◽  
Sébastien Garneau ◽  
Yiorgos Alexandros Cavayas ◽  

Background Mechanical ventilation is a common therapy in operating rooms and intensive care units. When ill-adapted, it can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), which is associated with poor outcomes. Excessive regional pulmonary strain is thought to be a major mechanism responsible for VILI. Scarce bedside methods exist to measure regional pulmonary strain. We propose a novel way to measure regional pleural strain using ultrasound elastography. Research Question The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and reliability of pleural strain measurement by ultrasound elastography and to determine if elastography parameters would correlate with varying tidal volumes. Study Design and Methods A single-blind randomized crossover proof of concept study was conducted July to October 2017 at a tertiary care referral center. Ten patients requiring general anesthesia for elective surgery were recruited. After induction, patients were received tidal volumes of 6, 8, 10 and 12 mL.kg-1 in random order, while pleural ultrasound cineloops were acquired at 4 standardized locations. Ultrasound radiofrequency speckle tracking allowed computing various pleural translation, strain and shear components. These were screened to identify those with the best dose-response with tidal volumes using linear mixed effect models. Goodness-of-fit was assessed by the coefficient of determination. Intraobserver, interobserver and test-retest reliability were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients. Results Analysis was possible in 90.7% of ultrasound cineloops. Lateral absolute shear, lateral absolute strain and Von Mises strain varied significantly with tidal volume and offered the best dose-responses and data modelling fits. Point estimates for intraobserver reliability measures were excellent for all 3 parameters (0.94, 0.94 and 0.93, respectively). Point estimates for interobserver (0.84, 0.83 and 0.77, respectively) and test-retest (0.85, 0.82 and 0.76, respectively) reliability measures were good. Interpretation Strain imaging is feasible and reproducible, and may eventually guide mechanical ventilation strategies in larger cohorts of patients.

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