Scale‐up Issues for Commercial Depth Filters in Bioprocessing

Negin Nejatishahidein ◽  
Minyoung Kim ◽  
Seon Yeop Jung ◽  
Ehsan Espah Borujeni ◽  
Lara Fernandez‐Cerezo ◽  
L.E. Murr ◽  
J.S. Dunning ◽  
S. Shankar

Aluminum additions to conventional 18Cr-8Ni austenitic stainless steel compositions impart excellent resistance to high sulfur environments. However, problems are typically encountered with aluminum additions above about 1% due to embrittlement caused by aluminum in solid solution and the precipitation of NiAl. Consequently, little use has been made of aluminum alloy additions to stainless steels for use in sulfur or H2S environments in the chemical industry, energy conversion or generation, and mineral processing, for example.A research program at the Albany Research Center has concentrated on the development of a wrought alloy composition with as low a chromium content as possible, with the idea of developing a low-chromium substitute for 310 stainless steel (25Cr-20Ni) which is often used in high-sulfur environments. On the basis of workability and microstructural studies involving optical metallography on 100g button ingots soaked at 700°C and air-cooled, a low-alloy composition Fe-12Cr-5Ni-4Al (in wt %) was selected for scale up and property evaluation.

Planta Medica ◽  
2012 ◽  
Vol 78 (11) ◽  
RS Barboza ◽  
BR Rocha ◽  
AC Siani ◽  
LMM Valente ◽  
JL Mazzei

2020 ◽  
Vol 119 (820) ◽  
pp. 303-309
J. Nicholas Ziegler

Comparing the virus responses in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States shows that in order for scientific expertise to result in effective policy, rational political leadership is required. Each of these three countries is known for advanced biomedical research, yet their experiences in the COVID-19 pandemic diverged widely. Germany’s political leadership carefully followed scientific advice and organized public–private partnerships to scale up testing, resulting in relatively low infection levels. The UK and US political responses were far more erratic and less informed by scientific advice—and proved much less effective.

2020 ◽  
Vol 32 (2) ◽  
pp. 113-136 ◽  
Simeon Pesch ◽  
Rebecca Knopf ◽  
Anahita Radmehr ◽  
Claire B. Paris ◽  
Zachary M. Aman ◽  

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