This work addresses the problem of planning a robot configuration and grasp to position a shared object during forceful human-robot collaboration, such as a puncturing or a cutting task. Particularly, our goal is to find a robot configuration that positions the jointly manipulated object such that the muscular effort of the human, operating on the same object, is minimized while also ensuring the stability of the interaction for the robot. This raises three challenges. First, we predict the human muscular effort given a human-robot combined kinematic configuration and the interaction forces of a task. To do this, we perform task-space to muscle-space mapping for two different musculoskeletal models of the human arm. Second, we predict the human body kinematic configuration given a robot configuration and the resulting object pose in the workspace. To do this, we assume that the human prefers the body configuration that minimizes the muscular effort. And third, we ensure that, under the forces applied by the human, the robot grasp on the object is stable and the robot joint torques are within limits. Addressing these three challenges, we build a planner that, given a forceful task description, can output the robot grasp on an object and the robot configuration to position the shared object in space. We quantitatively analyze the performance of the planner and the validity of our assumptions. We conduct experiments with human subjects to measure their kinematic configurations, muscular activity, and force output during collaborative puncturing and cutting tasks. The results illustrate the effectiveness of our planner in reducing the human muscular load. For instance, for the puncturing task, our planner is able to reduce muscular load by
compared to a user-based selection of object poses.
Abstract A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world’s most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.
Experimental studies of the non-stationary heat exchange in the system «environment I – body II» have been carried out. It is established that in the body II, which consists of the fluid and thin-walled metal envelope, the characteristic features of the regular thermal mode occur, i.e., cooling (heating) rate of the body II- m = const; heat transfer coefficient between the water (environment I) and body II is practically stable α1 = const; uneven temperatures distribution coefficient in the body II ψ = const.
This new notion of the heat transfer regularities in the body II is planned to apply for further development of the experimental-calculation method for the forecasting of the heat exchange intensity in the compound fluid media with limited information regarding thermophysical and rheological properties.