Optimal design of a multi-dimensional validated synergistic extraction process for the treatment of atmosphere-vacuum distillation wastewater

2022 ◽  
Vol 817 ◽  
pp. 152986
Wende Tian ◽  
Zhe Li ◽  
Dongwu Sui ◽  
Ye Tao ◽  
Zhe Cui ◽  
A.I Usenu

The rate of Soybean (Glycine max) oil (SBO) extraction with a ternary solvent mixture (water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate) optimised with I-optimal Design (IOD) under the Mixture Methodology of the Design Expert ( The data obtained were analysed statistically. The effect of extraction time (60-180 mins) and temperature (65-70 °C) on SBO was investigated and data obtained were used to evaluate the suitable kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the extraction. The maximum Rate of Oil Yield (32.35 mg/min) was achieved at the solvent mixture of 9.17% water, 6.67% ethanol, and 84.17% ethyl acetate. The Quadratic model best describes the Rate of Oil Yield, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9922 and an Adjusted R2 of 0.9825. The rate equation for the extraction process is a first-order reaction with ‘n’ value of 1.12756 (≅1.000) while the activation energy (Ea) and Arrhenius constant were 6508.1 kJ/mol and 38.901 s-1, respectively. The study has demonstrated the suitability of I-Optimal Design for the investigation of the Rate of Oil Yield from soybean and the result could be employed in oil extraction process design.

2017 ◽  
Vol 165 ◽  
pp. 1395-1406 ◽  
Peizhe Cui ◽  
Bokun Chen ◽  
Siyu Yang ◽  
Yu Qian

Burton B. Silver

Tissue from a non-functional kidney affected with chronic membranous glomerulosclerosis was removed at time of trnasplantation. Recipient kidney tissue and donor kidney tissue were simultaneously fixed for electron microscopy. Primary fixation was in phosphate buffered gluteraldehyde followed by infiltration in 20 and then 40% glycerol. The tissues were frozen in liquid Freon and finally in liquid nitrogen. Fracturing and replication of the etched surface was carried out in a Denton freeze-etch device. The etched surface was coated with platinum followed by carbon. These replicas were cleaned in a 50% solution of sodium hypochlorite and mounted on 400 mesh copper grids. They were examined in an Siemens Elmiskop IA. The pictures suggested that the diseased kidney had heavy deposits of an unknown substance which might account for its inoperative state at the time of surgery. Such deposits were not as apparent in light microscopy or in the standard fixation methods used for EM. This might have been due to some extraction process which removed such granular material in the dehydration steps.

1963 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 329-334
A. G. Ward ◽  
G. H. Broomfield

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