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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 107538
Author(s):  
Hanmin Hu ◽  
Yulu Qin ◽  
Peng Lang ◽  
Xiaowei Song ◽  
Boyu Ji ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 558-568
Author(s):  
Douglas Magno Guimarães ◽  
Brennda Lucy Freitas de Paula ◽  
Luciane Margalho Rodrigues ◽  
Hilton Túlio Costi ◽  
Hervé Louis Ghislain Rogez ◽  
...  

Background: The tooth bleaching treatment can cause structural changes in the surfaces of the teeth; these changes can increase the absorption of staining agents. Purpose: This study assessed surface morphological changes and predisposition to staining in dental enamel bleached with different hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentrations, with or without the use of a light source (LS). Methods: 25 bovine incisor specimens were divided into five groups (n = 5): Control- no treatment; HP35 - hydrogen peroxide 35%; HP35+LED - hydrogen peroxide 35% + light emission; HP20 - hydrogen peroxide 20%; and HP7 - hydrogen peroxide 7,5%. Twenty days after bleaching, the specimens were immersed in staining solutions four hours a day for 28 days. The morphological alterations of the bovine enamel surface were evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy and predisposition to the staining of the brightened enamel by means of colorimetry. Results: ANOVA with Tukey's test (p<0.05) showed that HP7 had the highest ΔL values (p=0.176) (brightest), with a better lightening effect. The bleached groups exhibited morphological changes in the enamel. The groups did not exhibit significant changes in oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus values (p=0.020). The presence or absence of light was not significant (p=0.007) for the predisposition to staining in bleached teeth. Conclusion: The time of exposure to the staining solution was significant for staining bovine dental enamel. High concentrations of HP were not necessary for achieving effective bleaching. HP caused an increase in enamel porosity and depressions. The light source did not influence bleaching.


IUCrJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
David Herreros ◽  
Roy R. Lederman ◽  
James Krieger ◽  
Amaya Jiménez-Moreno ◽  
Marta Martínez ◽  
...  

Structural biology has evolved greatly due to the advances introduced in fields like electron microscopy. This image-capturing technique, combined with improved algorithms and current data processing software, allows the recovery of different conformational states of a macromolecule, opening new possibilities for the study of its flexibility and dynamic events. However, the ensemble analysis of these different conformations, and in particular their placement into a common variable space in which the differences and similarities can be easily recognized, is not an easy matter. To simplify the analysis of continuous heterogeneity data, this work proposes a new automatic algorithm that relies on a mathematical basis defined over the sphere to estimate the deformation fields describing conformational transitions among different structures. Thanks to the approximation of these deformation fields, it is possible to describe the forces acting on the molecules due to the presence of different motions. It is also possible to represent and compare several structures in a low-dimensional mapping, which summarizes the structural characteristics of different states. All these analyses are integrated into a common framework, providing the user with the ability to combine them seamlessly. In addition, this new approach is a significant step forward compared with principal component analysis and normal mode analysis of cryo-electron microscopy maps, avoiding the need to select components or modes and producing localized analysis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1114
Author(s):  
Marta Solé ◽  
Maria Constenla ◽  
Francesc Padrós ◽  
Antoni Lombarte ◽  
José-Manuel Fortuño ◽  
...  

The use of bioacoustic methods to address sea lice infestation in salmonid farming is a promising innovative method but implies an exposure to sound that could affect the fish. An assessment of the effects of these techniques related to the salmon’s welfare is presented here. The fish were repeatedly exposed to 350 Hz and 500 Hz tones in three- to four-hour exposure sessions, reaching received sound pressure levels of 140 to 150 dB re 1 µPa2, with the goal of reaching total sound exposure levels above 190 dB re 1 µPa2 s. Gross pathology and histopathological analysis performed on exposed salmons’ organs did not reveal any lesions that could be associated to sound exposure. The analysis of their otoliths through electron microscopy imaging confirmed that the sound dose that was used to impair the lice had no effects on the fish auditory organs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (20) ◽  
pp. 9536
Author(s):  
Jorge Alberto Ramírez-Ortega ◽  
José Trinidad Guillén-Bonilla ◽  
Alex Guillén-Bonilla ◽  
Verónica María Rodríguez-Betancourtt ◽  
Lorenzo Gildo-Ortiz ◽  
...  

In this work, powders of NiSb2O6 were synthesized using a simple and economical microwave-assisted wet chemistry method, and calcined at 700, 800, and 900 °C. It was identified through X-ray diffraction that the oxide is a nanomaterial with a trirutile-type structure and space group P42/mnm (136). UV–Vis spectroscopy measurements showed that the bandgap values were at ~3.10, ~3.14, and ~3.23 eV at 700, 800, and 900 °C, respectively. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), irregularly shaped polyhedral microstructures with a size of ~154.78 nm were observed on the entire material’s surface. The particle size was estimated to average ~92.30 nm at the calcination temperature of 900 °C. Sensing tests in static atmospheres containing 300 ppm of CO at 300 °C showed a maximum sensitivity of ~72.67. On the other hand, in dynamic atmospheres at different CO flows and at an operating temperature of 200 °C, changes with time in electrical resistance were recorded, showing a high response, stability, and repeatability, and good sensor efficiency during several operation cycles. The response times were ~2.77 and ~2.10 min to 150 and 200 cm3/min of CO, respectively. Dynamic tests in propane (C3H8) atmospheres revealed that the material improved its response in alternating current signals at two different frequencies (0.1 and 1 kHz). It was also observed that at 360 °C, the ability to detect propane flows increased considerably. As in the case of CO, NiSb2O6’s response in propane atmospheres showed very good thermal stability, efficiency, a high capacity to detect C3H8, and short response and recovery times at both frequencies. Considering the great performance in propane flows, a sensor prototype was developed that modulates the electrical signals at 360 °C, verifying the excellent functionality of NiSb2O6.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2453
Author(s):  
Jingfei Hu ◽  
Xueqing Tian ◽  
Tong Wei ◽  
Hangjie Wu ◽  
Jing Lu ◽  
...  

Helicobacter pylori is a cause of gastric cancer. We extracted the exopolysaccharide (EPS) of Lactobacillus plajomi PW-7 for antibacterial activity versus H. pylori, elucidating its biological activity and structural characteristics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EPS against H. pylori was 50 mg/mL. Disruption of the cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria by EPS was indicated via the antibacterial mechanism test and confirmed through electron microscopy. EPS also has antioxidant capacity. The IC50 of EPS for 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radicals were 300 μg/mL, 180 μg/mL, and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of EPS was 2 mg/mL, equivalent to 20 μg/mL of ascorbic acid. EPS is a heteropolysaccharide comprising six monosaccharides, with an approximate molecular weight of 2.33 × 104 Da. Xylose had a significant effect on H. pylori. EPS from L. plajomi PW-7 showed potential as an antibacterial compound and antioxidant, laying a foundation for the development of EPS-based foods.


Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6086
Author(s):  
Pawel Jóźwik ◽  
Agata Baran ◽  
Tomasz Płociński ◽  
Daniel Dziedzic ◽  
Jakub Nawała ◽  
...  

This article presents the results of investigations of the morphology and structure of carbon deposit formed as a result of ethanol decomposition at 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C without water vapour and with water vapour (0.35 and 1.1% by volume). scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) observations as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopic analyses allowed for a comprehensive characterization of the morphology and structure of cylindrical carbon nanostructures present on the surface of the Ni3Al catalyst. Depending on the reaction mixture composition (i.e., water vapour content) and decomposition temperature, various carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibres (CNTs/CNFs) were observed: multiwalled carbon nanotubes, herringbone-type multiwall carbon nanotubes, cylindrical carbon nanofibers, platelet carbon nanofibers, and helical carbon nanotubes/nanofibres. The discussed carbon nanostructures exhibited nickel nanoparticles at the ends and in the middle part of the carbon nanostructures as catalytically active centres for efficient ethanol decomposition.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sahar Taheri ◽  
Majid M Heravi ◽  
Pourya Mohammadi

Abstract Green synthesis of a noble metal such as Ag nanoparticles is an enormously developed research area. In this study, biochar/Fe3O4-Ag magnetic nanocatalyst was produced via a green path by using Celery stalk as a carbon-based substrate, and Celery leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agents to construct Ag nanoparticles. The synthesized nanocatalyst was determined using various techniques, such as UV-Vis, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM/EDX spectroscopy (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer). To survey the catalytic action of the biochar/Fe3O4-Ag nanocatalyst, it was used in the reduction reaction of disparate nitroaromatics, aldehydes, and ketones. This catalyst has demonstrated premier characteristics in terms of the amount, reusability, recoverability, activity, and structural integrity of the catalyst during the reaction. In addition, biochar/Fe3O4-Ag could be detached magnetically and recycled multiple times without significantly reducing its catalytic performance.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (20) ◽  
pp. 6211
Author(s):  
Guowang Tang ◽  
Cangqin Jia ◽  
Guihe Wang ◽  
Peizhi Yu ◽  
Haonan Zhang

The use of additives has generated significant attention due to their extensive application in the microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. This study aims to discuss the effects of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) on CaCO3 crystallization and sandy soil consolidation through the MICP process. Compared with the traditional MICP method, a larger amount of CaCO3 precipitate was obtained. Moreover, the reaction of Ca2+ ions was accelerated, and bacteria were absorbed by a small amount of Na-MMT. Meanwhile, an increase in the total cementing solution (TCS) was not conducive to the previous reaction. This problem was solved by conducting the reaction with Na-MMT. The polymorphs and morphologies of the CaCO3 precipitates were tested by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Further, when Na-MMT was used, the morphology of CaCO3 changed from an individual precipitate to agglomerations of the precipitate. Compared to the experiments without Na-MMT in the MICP process, the addition of Na-MMT significantly reduced the hydraulic conductivity (HC) of sandy soil consolidated.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2718
Author(s):  
Luca Bruno ◽  
Vincenzina Strano ◽  
Mario Scuderi ◽  
Giorgia Franzò ◽  
Francesco Priolo ◽  
...  

Surface decoration by means of metal nanostructures is an effective way to locally modify the electronic properties of materials. The decoration of ZnO nanorods by means of Au nanoparticles was experimentally investigated and modelled in terms of energy band bending. ZnO nanorods were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. Decoration with Au nanoparticles was achieved by immersion in a colloidal solution obtained through the modified Turkevich method. The surface of ZnO nanorods was quantitatively investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. The Photoluminescence and Cathodoluminescence of bare and decorated ZnO nanorods were investigated, as well as the band bending through Mott–Schottky electrochemical analyses. Decoration with Au nanoparticles induced a 10 times reduction in free electrons below the surface of ZnO, together with a decrease in UV luminescence and an increase in visible-UV intensity ratio. The effect of decoration was modelled with a nano-Schottky junction at ZnO surface below the Au nanoparticle with a Multiphysics approach. An extensive electric field with a specific halo effect formed beneath the metal–semiconductor interface. ZnO nanorod decoration with Au nanoparticles was shown to be a versatile method to tailor the electronic properties at the semiconductor surface.


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