sodium hypochlorite
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 891
Roberto De Santis ◽  
Flavia Iaculli ◽  
Vincenzo Lodato ◽  
Vito Gallicchio ◽  
Michele Simeone ◽  

Background: Enhancement of the temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution would increase its cleaning potential and decontamination of the root canal system. Therefore, the aim of the present in vitro investigation was to compare the efficacy of different methods of NaOCl heating by evaluating the temperature profiles developed at different levels of the root canal system. Methods: Five thermocouples were applied at different levels of the root canal system of extracted human premolars. NaOCl solution was heated according to two methods: extraoral heating (50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C) using a magnetic hotplate heater and intracanal heating by F-06, XF-30/04, and ML-12 pluggers at 100 °C, 150 °C, and 180 °C. Results: The extraoral heating method was ineffective to produce a significant temperature increase at the root apex. Comparable results were obtained using the intracanal heating method through the ML-12 plugger that showed slightly better results only when set at 180 °C. On the other hand, negligible differences were observed in terms of temperature maintenance at several levels of the root between the F-06 and XF-30/04 pluggers, even though the time intervals were higher in case of XF-30/04. Conclusions: The intracanal heating method provided a better temperature persistence in the middle third of the root canal system. Conversely, extraoral heating was ineffective to produce a significant temperature increase at the apex of the root. Comparable results were obtained even using the ML-12 plugger.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Hiroshi Nozaki ◽  
Yoshihiro Tange ◽  
Yoji Inada ◽  
Takashi Uchino ◽  
Nakanobu Azuma

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Ultrapurification of dialysis fluid has enabled highly efficient dialysis treatments. Online hemodiafiltration is one such treatment that uses a purified dialysis fluid as a supplemental fluid. In this method, an endotoxin retentive filter (ETRF) is used in the final step of dialysis fluid purification, with the aim of preventing leakage of endotoxins. Sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid are used as disinfecting agents for the dialysis fluid pipes containing the ETRF; however, the effects of these agents on ETRF membrane pores have not been fully clarified. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Water permeability (flux) and endotoxin permeability were assessed in 3 types of ETRFs made with different membrane materials: polyester polymer alloy (PEPA), polyether sulfone (PES), and polysulfone (PS). High-concentration sodium hypochlorite and 2 types of peracetic acid were used as disinfecting agents, and the changes in flux and the endotoxin sieving coefficient (SC) were measured. <b><i>Results:</i></b> After repeated use of high concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, the PEPA and PES ETRFs did not permit passage of endotoxins, regardless of their flux. However, in the PS ETRF, the flux and endotoxin SC increased with the number of cleaning cycles. No differences were observed according to the concentration of peracetic acid disinfecting agents. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> PEPA and PES ETRFs completely prevent endotoxin leakage and can be disinfected at concentrations higher than the conventionally recommended concentration without affecting pore expansion. Even new PS ETRFs have low levels of endotoxin leakage, which increase after disinfection cycles using sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012056
A. B. Hameed ◽  
A. B. Dekhyl ◽  
W. M. Sh. Alabdraba

Abstract This study investigated the feasibility of using sodium hypochlorite as an advanced oxidation process to remove Acid Orange 12 azo dye from wastewater. For this purpose, batch reactor experiments were done. Several variables to address the efficiency of using this process were considered. These variables are initial pH (5, 7, and 9), the concentration of hypochlorite (50 – 250 mg/l), temperature (20-50) degrees Celsius, and time of electrolysis (1-75) min. also investigate the effects of UV on the process was done. Experimental results showed that the color removal efficiency using NaOCl with UV is more effective than NaOCl alone. The highest removal efficiency was obtained by increasing the concentration of NaOCl from (50-250mg/l) at PH=5. When the solution temperature was increased from (20-50) °C, the removal efficiency increased, and at the same time, the time required was reduced from (20-5) minutes to obtain the highest removal efficiency. The kinetic study also showed that the oxidation process follows a second-order reaction. The thermodynamic functions indicate that the response is spontaneous, endothermic, and increases randomness.

José Ricardo Claudino Ribeiro ◽  
Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno ◽  
Kely Firmino Bruno ◽  
Samuel dos Reis ◽  
Alexandre Sigrist de Martin ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (4) ◽  
pp. 533-537
Seyed Amir Mousavi ◽  
Niloofar Norouzi ◽  
Bahareh Memarzadeh ◽  
Seyed Rohollah Havaei Havaei ◽  
Hazhir Yousefshahi

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 15-22
Saroj Kumar Thakur ◽  
Vishvesh Prakashchandra Bansal ◽  
Jyotsna Mishra ◽  
M.P. Bansal ◽  
Iswari Sapkota ◽  

Introduction: In the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), microscopic examination of sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is currently the backbone for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Studies have shown liquefaction and concentration of sputum by 5% sodium hypochlorite is useful in providing increased sensitivity and safety for the handling of specimens. Objective: To assess the utility of the 5% Sodium hypochlorite concentration method in increasing the sensitivity of smear microscopy for detection of AFB for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: The study included a total of 1000 sputum samples from 500 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. Direct smears were prepared from the sputum samples as per RNTCP guidelines. The remaining sputum was used for bleach concentration and smears prepared from the concentrated material. Both smears were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and screened for acid-fast bacilli and graded according to the RNTCP guidelines. Results: A total of 158 samples (15.8%) from 89 patients were positive by a routine direct method whereas by concentration method 236 samples (23.6%) from 143 patients were found positive diagnosing additional 54 patients. The gain in sputum smear positivity of 7.8% over the routine method is highly significant (p=0.0000, χ2= 270) with a 10.8% increase in case detection. Conclusions: Improvement in the sensitivity of smears microscopy will be useful in case detection of tuberculosis especially in resource-poor countries. The increased positivity of microscopy by bleach method indicates that would prove useful if included in the RNTCP to improve case detection. Keywords: Concentration; smear positivity; sodium hypochlorite; tuberculosis.

O. A. Zinchenko ◽  
N. S. Zatserkovna ◽  
O. A. Ukrainets ◽  
A. V. Zabolotna

Purpose. To determine the influence of biotechnological parameters on the yield of macrostructures from unfertilized seed germs of diploid sugar beet. Methods. Biotechnological, laboratory, analytical, statistical. Results. It was found that the use of 35% sodium hypochlorite solution at an exposure of 40 min allows to obtain from 73.13 to 75.83% of sterile seed germs. Exposure of 50 min allows to obtain the sterility of the source material from 83.58 to 85.39%. Sterilization of explants for 60 min allows to obtain sterility of the source material from 86.88 to 92.80%. The share of infected seed germs with increasing exposure decreased from 20.09–22.14 to 6.52–12.61%. The yield of macrostructures has been experimentally confirmed to significantly depend on breeding genotype and type of medium. The largest number of calluses (10–80%) was formed with the use of the Hamburg and Eveleg’s medium. With the use of he Murasige and Skoog’s medium, their share was 10–35%. Noteworthy, in breeding genotypes 07–181, 80% of genotypes formed buds and 35% formed calluses in the Hamburg and Eveleg’s medium. Of breeding genotypes 07–178, 55% of genotypes formed a callus and 80% buds. Conclusions. As a result of the conducted researches the influence of biotechnological parameters (exposure to 35% solution of sodium hypochlorite, type of nutrient medium) on the yield of macrostructures from unfertilized seed germs of diploid sugar beet was determined. It is optimal to carry out treatment with 35% sodium hypochlorite solution for 50–60 minutes, regardless of the selection number of sugar beet. To obtain macrostructures from unfertilized seed germs of diploid sugar beet, it is necessary to use the Hamburg and Eveleg’s medium for breeding genotypes 07–188, 07–178 and 07–181.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 46-52
Shilpa Bhandi ◽  
Madhuram Krishnamurthy ◽  
Vignesh Guptha Raju ◽  
A Shafie Ahamed ◽  
KE Selvendran ◽  

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