The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the available literature on the essential oil from species of genus Cordia. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. The search was conducted on four databases: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus until June 5th, 2020, with no time or language restrictions. Sixty out of the 1,333 initially gathered studies fit the inclusion criteria after the selection process. Nine species of Cordiawere reported in the selected studies, out of which 79% of the evaluated studies reported essential oil from Cordia curassavica. The essential oil extraction methods identified were hydrodistillation and steam distillation. As for biological application, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, larvicidal and antioxidant activities were the most reported. The main compounds reported for essential oil were β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, and sabinene. The information reported in this systematic review can contribute scientifically to the recognition of the importance of the genus Cordia.
Carapa guianensis species belongs to the Meliaceae family and, in the Brazilian Amazon, it has great importance in folk medicine, mainly because the oil extracted from its seeds presents varied biological activities. Thus, the present work aimed to analyze, by gas phase chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the chemical composition of manually extracted andiroba oil, from Mamangal community, located in Igarapé-Miri, Pará, Brazil. As results, 99.63% of the constituents of the oil sample were identified and quantified from which the main components were oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The manual oil extraction from andiroba seeds in the Mamangal community is sustainable and economically viable. Due to the high content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids C. guianensis oil can be considered interesting useful for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Indeed, the unsaturated fatty acids represented 57.5% of the oil constituents, among which the essential ones stand out, as they have great applicability in healing drugs formulation.
The high demand of information and communication technology (ICT) in agriculture applications has led to the introduction of the concept of smart farming. In this respect, moving from the main features of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) promoted by the European Community, new approaches have been suggested and adopted in agriculture, giving rise to the so-called Agriculture 4.0. Improvements in automation, advanced information systems and Internet technologies allow for farmers to increase the productivity and to allocate the resources reasonably. For these reasons, agricultural decision support systems (DSS) for Agriculture 4.0 have become a very interesting research topic. DSS are interactive tools that enable users to make informed decisions about unstructured problems, and can be either fully computerized, human or a combination of both. In general, a DSS analyzes and synthesizes large amounts of data to assist in decision making. This paper presents an innovative decision support system solution to address the issues faced by coconut oil producers in making strategic decisions, particularly in the comparison of different methods of oil extraction. In more detail, the adopted methodology describes how to address the problems of coconut oil extraction in order to minimize the processing time and processing cost and to obtain energy savings. To this end, the coconut oil extraction process of the Leão São Tomé and Principe Company is presented as a case study: a DSS instance that analyzes the problem of the optimal selection between two different oil coconut extraction methods (fermentation-based and standard extraction processes) is developed as a meta-heuristics with a mixed integer linear programming problem. The obtained results show that there is clearly a trade-off between the increase in cost and reliability that the decision-maker may be willing to evaluate. In this respect, the proposed model provides a tool to support the decision-maker in choosing the best combination between the two different coconut oil extraction methods. The proposed DSS has been tested in a real application context through an experimental campaign.
The objective was to evaluate the performance of four hydro-alcoholic solvents to simultaneously extract oil and more polar molecules as phenolics, among others, to produce complex extracts that eventually could self-emulsify after solvent removal. Walnut press-cake was selected as the sourcing material. Extractions were performed as a semi-continuous operation up to a solvent-to-solid ratio of 28, with a fractional collection of the effluent. Among the solvents, labelled by their alcohol content EtOH 58, EtOH 86, iPro 60 and iPro 90 for ethanol (EtOH) and isopropanol (iPro), iPro 90 allowed to reach an oil extraction efficiency of 97% while the recovery for the other solvents was in the range of 30–40%. For both alcohols, the increase of the solvent hydration negatively influenced the oil extraction but positively increased the recovery of phenolics that reached 17.6 mg GAE/gcake when EtOH 58 was used. Several fractions contained enough surface-active material and oil to self-assemble as emulsions. IPro 90 and EtOH 86 showed better performances in the sense that most extracts were able to emulsify, though extraction kinetics pointed out differences. The most hydrated solvents behaved equally, with extraction yields in the same range and a similar but limited emulsifying capacity of only few fractions.
In a context where the search for naturalness, the need to reduce the carbon footprint and the development of a decentralized crushing sector are intensifying, mechanical extraction is a technology that is regaining major importance for the industry. The performance of this technique remains far below what is desirable, while the understanding of the main phenomena involved in screw presses remains insufficient. This article, after a brief presentation of the state of the art of this discipline, presents a new model centered on the notions of pressure generation and plasticity. According to this approach, plasticity can account for parameters such as the water and oil content of oilseeds, their temperature, and their possible dehulling. Plasticity in turn would explain both the compressibility of the cake and its ability to resist the thrust of the screws, and consequently to generate pressure or to creep or flow backward depending on the geometry of the screw and the cage. The model must also incorporate the notions of compression velocity, friction, and the complexity of the interactions between these parameters and the impact of the succession of screw segments and cone rings. It has been built on observation and experience and gives an understanding of the need to work simultaneously on the conditioning and geometry of the presses to achieve improved performance in terms of energy, efficiency, and reduction of the temperatures experienced by the proteins and oils