Ethyl Acetate
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Marcela Brito ◽  
Ana Maturana ◽  
Ivan Montenegro ◽  
Bastian Said ◽  

The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.

Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 828
Viviane Araujo Dalbon ◽  
Juan Pablo Molina Acevedo ◽  
Karlos Antônio Lisboa Ribeiro Junior ◽  
Thyago Fernando Lisboa Ribeiro ◽  
Joao Manoel da Silva ◽  

Coupling several natural and synthetic lures with aggregation pheromones from the palm weevils Rhynchophorus palmarum and R. ferrugineus reveals a synergy that results in an increase in pest captures. The combined attraction of pure pheromones, ethyl acetate, and decaying sweet and starchy plant tissue increases the net total of mass-trapped weevils. The 2018 entrance of the red palm weevil (RPW) into South America has threatened palm-product income in Brazil and other neighboring countries. The presence of the new A1 quarantine pest necessitates the review of all available options for a sustainable mass-trapping, monitoring, and control strategy to ultimately target both weevils with the same device. The effective lure-blend set for the mass-trapping system will attract weevils in baiting and contaminating stations for entomopathogenic fungi that the same weevils will spread.

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Md Arifur Rahman ◽  
Ahmed Abu Rus’d ◽  
Md Enamul Haque

Sonneratia apetala (S. apetala) (Lythraceae) has been investigated for the isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds and evaluation of their biological activities. The chloroform extract of the stem bark and different partitionate of the chloroform extracts i.e. Petroleum ether soluble fraction (PESF), Ethyl acetate soluble fraction(EASF), Methanol soluble fraction(MSF) and aqueous soluble fractions (ASF) were subjected to different chromatographic techniques to isolate secondary metabolites. Successive chromatographic separation and purification yielded a total of two compounds identified and characterized as Taraxerone(1) and 5,8-dihydroxy- 6-methoxy-4,9-dioxo-1,3,4,9-tetrahydronaphthol[2,3-c]furan-1-yl acetate (2) by extensive proton NMR spectrum (1H-NMRspectrum) analysis. The different partitionate like PESF, EASF, MESF and ASF were subjected to screen their antimicrobial properties against some selected Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi, brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activities. The maximum zone of inhibition of chloroform extract was found against Pseudomonas sp. (16mm). All fractions showed more activity against Gram negative bacteria then Gram positive bacteria. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, among all extracts, the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed significant lethality having the LC50 value of 7.72 μg/ml. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of determination of free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay). Among all the extracts of S. apetala the highest free radical scavenging activity showed by (Methanol soluble fraction) MESF with IC50 value 18.0 μg/ml. Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 1, June 2021, pp 1-5

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (18) ◽  
pp. 6160
Hua Li ◽  
Jiakai Pan ◽  
Hongda Zeng ◽  
Zhencheng Chen ◽  
Xiaoxia Du ◽  

High-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) spectra of single chemicals are easy to interpret but identifying specific chemicals within complex mixtures is difficult. This paper demonstrates that the FAIMS system can detect specific chemicals in complex mixtures. A homemade FAIMS system is used to analyze pure ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, butanone, and their mixtures in order to create datasets. An EfficientNetV2 discriminant model was constructed, and a blind test set was used to verify whether the deep-learning model is capable of the required task. The results show that the pre-trained EfficientNetV2 model completed convergence at a learning rate of 0.1 as well as 200 iterations. Specific substances in complex mixtures can be effectively identified using the trained model and the homemade FAIMS system. Accuracies of 100%, 96.7%, and 86.7% are obtained for ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone in the blind test set, which are much higher than conventional methods. The deep learning network provides higher accuracy than traditional FAIMS spectral analysis methods. This simplifies the FAIMS spectral analysis process and contributes to further development of FAIMS systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 20-27
Jeremiah John Oloche ◽  
Bolaji Bosede Oluremi ◽  
Temiloluwa Oyindamola Koya

Global health is under constant threat due to antimicrobial drug resistance. Bacterial Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are of importance because of their antibiotics resistance. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extracts of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas isolates. Fresh samples of XA leaf, stem bark and roots were collected from the botanical garden, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Dried and pulverized samples were extracted with methanol and partitioned into n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed by standard methods. Antimicrobial activity and synergistic interaction were determined using microdilution and checkerboard broth dilution methods, respectively. The results revealed that crude methanol extracts of XA leaf, stem bark and root significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the growth of all tested MDR Pseudomonas isolates at 10 mg/mL. At 1 mg/mL, the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf, and dichloromethane fraction of the roots produced clear zones of inhibition of 12 – 20 mm, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1 µg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The modulation factor (MF) of ciprofloxacin, dichloromethane fraction of XA roots and ethyl acetate fraction of XA leaf were 4, 8, and 4 on MDR isolates E01006, OAU058 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, respectively. In all tested isolates, but not E01006 and E01024, the fractional MICs of ciprofloxacin/ethylacetate fraction of XA leaf extract combination was not significantly different (p>0.05) compared with ciprofloxacin/verapamil combination. In conclusion, the root and leaf fractions Xylopia aethiopica that demonstrated antimicrobial activity against MDR P. aeruginosa and synergised with ciprofloxacin have the potential to rejuvenate the antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin in MDR P. aeruginosa.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Moufida Bouchekrit ◽  
Hocine Laouer ◽  
Yavus Selim Cakmak ◽  
Mohamed Hajji ◽  
Saber Boutellaa ◽  

Objective: The current investigation was conducted to evaluate phenol and flavonoid contents, antibacterial, antioxidant and antihypertensive potentials of three extracts of Margotia gummifera aerial parts. Methods: The antibacterial effect was assessed using wells agar diffusion method against 11 strains. The antioxidant effect was evaluated using different methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing ability power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. The antihypertensive activity was performed using hippuryl-histidyl-leucine substrates. Results: The highest yield was obtained by hydro-methanolic extract, 19.801 %, however ethyl acetate extract seemed to be rich on phenolic and flavonoid compounds comparing to other extracts, 822.14±69.10 mg GAE g-1 ext. and 117.28±1.80 mg RE g-1 ext., respectively. The high free radical scavenging activity was mentioned in ethyl acetate extract with IC50 of 48.820±1.25 µg/ml. The same extract showed better antioxidant activity in all tested procedures. In antibacterial activity, the hydro-methanolic extract exhibited moderate effect against all tested bacteria except Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis which gave 18±2.0 and 16±1.0 mm of inhibition, whereas, it seemed to be inactive towards two Gram-negative bacteria. Concerning antihypertensive activity, all extracts can inhibit the Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme, but the potential effect was given by hydro-methanolic and aqueous extracts, 97.75 % and 96.65 %, respectively. Conclusion: It can be stated that bioactive compounds of Margotia gummifera extracts had different biological activities which confirm their therapeutic uses in traditional medicine.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (9) ◽  
pp. 519
Tarik A. Mohamed ◽  
Abdelsamed I. Elshamy ◽  
Asmaa M. Abdel-Tawab ◽  
Mona M. AbdelMohsen ◽  
Shinji Ohta ◽  

The soft coral genus Sarcophyton contains the enzymatic machinery to synthesize a multitude of cembrene-type diterpenes. Herein, highly oxygenated cembrenoids, sarcoconvolutum A-E (1–5) were purified and characterized from an ethyl acetate extract of the red sea soft coral, Sarcophyton convolutum. Compounds were assemblies according to spectroscopic methods including FTIR, 1D- and 2D-NMR as well as HRMS. Metabolite cytotoxicity was tested against lung adenocarcinoma, cervical cancer, and oral-cavity carcinoma (A549, HeLa and HSC-2, respectively). The most cytotoxic compound, (4) was observed to be active against cell lines A549 and HSC-2 with IC50 values of 49.70 and 53.17 μM, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Bambang Susilo ◽  
Abd. Rohim ◽  
Midia Lestari W. H.

Background: S. cristaefolium is the brown seaweed extracted using the serial technique with different solvents. Methods: S. cristaefolium powder (50 mesh) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol respectively. The S. cristaefolium powder residue had been dried before being re-extracted with the next different solvents. Three serial extracts were obtained and named as the 1-stage extract, 2-stage extract, and 3-stage extract. Besides, a single-step extract (extraction using only methanol) was also produced to compare with three serial extracts in antibacterial activity tests (against E. coli and S. aureus). The three serial extracts were detected their antibacterial compounds using GC-MS, LC-HRMS, and FT-IR. Results: The 3-stage extract had the highest extraction yield. On S. aureus, the inhibition zone in all extracts was not significantly different. On E.coli, the highest inhibition zone (5.42±0.14 mm) was the 3-stage extract, indeed it is higher than both antibiotic and a single-step extract. Phenol, 9-Tricosene(Z)-, palmitic acid, and oleamide were contained in all extracts. Other antibacterial compound types, both the 1-stage and 2-stage extracts contained 8 types whilst the 3-stage extract contained the most types (12 types). Particularly, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde and betaine were detected only in the 3-stage extract with the dominant area. The carboxylic acid groups were detected in all extracts to confirm the fatty acid structure. Several cinnamic aldehyde groups were detected only in the 3-stage extract. Conclusions: Thus, the extraction technique serially could produce the 3-stage extract which has the strongest antibacterial activity and the richest antibacterial compounds.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1166
Érika Alves Bezerra ◽  
Michel Mualém de Moraes Alves ◽  
Simone Kelly Rodrigues Lima ◽  
Emanuelly Elanny Andrade Pinheiro ◽  
Layane Valéria Amorim ◽  

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide, making the search essential for more accessible treatments. The species Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) has been extensively studied and has gained prominence for its pharmacological potential. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antileishmania activity, cytotoxic effect and activation patterns of macrophages of hydroalcoholic extract (EHPi), ethyl acetate fractions (FAcOEt) and morelloflavone/volkensiflavone mixture (MB) from P. insignis flowers. EHPi, FAcOEt and MB demonstrated concentration-dependent antileishmania activity, with inhibition of parasite growth in all analyzed concentrations. EHPi exhibited maximum effect at 800 μg/mL, while FAcOEt and MB reduced the growth of the parasite by 94.62% at 800 μg/mL. EHPi, FAcOEt and MB showed low cytotoxic effects for macrophages at 81.78, 159.67 and 134.28 μg/mL, respectively. EHPi (11.25 µg/mL), FAcOEt (11.25 and 22.5 µg/mL) and MB (22.5 µg/mL) characterized the increase in lysosomal activity, suggesting a possible modulating effect. These findings open for the application of flowers from a P. insignis flowers and biflavones mixture thereof in the promising treatment of leishmaniasis.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1096
Ping Yang ◽  
Shigeru Fujimura ◽  
Yawei Du ◽  
Bei Zhang ◽  
Li Yang ◽  

This study aimed to provide comparative information of pharmaceutical properties, including particle morphology and distribution uniformity, solubility, presence of residual solvent and insoluble particles, and antimicrobial activities, between brand-name meropenem (Mepem®, BNM) and its six generic products (GPs A-F) marketed in China. Particles of GP-A and -C in dry powder had similar diameters of BNM, while other GPs were larger. Only BNM and GP-A were completely dissolved within 100 s in the lab condition. No insoluble particles >25 μm in diameter were detected in BNM and GP-E. Regarding stability of GPs solutions evaluated by concentration of open-ring metabolites at 6 h and 8 h, BNM showed the lowest open-ringed metabolite concentrates. Residual solvent of acetone detected in one GP showed the maximum value, while ethanol and ethyl acetate were detected both in product E and product F. The concordance rates (%) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each generic compared to BNM were 89.5, 85, 87.5, 88, 88.5, and 86.5, respectively, although no significant difference was reached in MIC. Pharmaceutical characteristic differences between the BNM and GPs identified in this study could provide insights into understanding the deviations in the drug manufacturing processes of generic drugs.

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