scholarly journals User Profiling Based on Nonlinguistic Audio Data

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Jiaxing Shen ◽  
Jiannong Cao ◽  
Oren Lederman ◽  
Shaojie Tang ◽  
Alex “Sandy” Pentland

User profiling refers to inferring people’s attributes of interest ( AoIs ) like gender and occupation, which enables various applications ranging from personalized services to collective analyses. Massive nonlinguistic audio data brings a novel opportunity for user profiling due to the prevalence of studying spontaneous face-to-face communication. Nonlinguistic audio is coarse-grained audio data without linguistic content. It is collected due to privacy concerns in private situations like doctor-patient dialogues. The opportunity facilitates optimized organizational management and personalized healthcare, especially for chronic diseases. In this article, we are the first to build a user profiling system to infer gender and personality based on nonlinguistic audio. Instead of linguistic or acoustic features that are unable to extract, we focus on conversational features that could reflect AoIs. We firstly develop an adaptive voice activity detection algorithm that could address individual differences in voice and false-positive voice activities caused by people nearby. Secondly, we propose a gender-assisted multi-task learning method to combat dynamics in human behavior by integrating gender differences and the correlation of personality traits. According to the experimental evaluation of 100 people in 273 meetings, we achieved 0.759 and 0.652 in F1-score for gender identification and personality recognition, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Michael Hodgkins ◽  
Meg Barron ◽  
Shireesha Jevaji ◽  
Stacy Lloyd

AbstractIt took the advent of SARS-CoV-2, a “black swan event”, to widely introduce telehealth, remote care, and virtual house calls. Prior to the epidemic (2019), the American Medical Association (AMA) conducted a routine study to compare physicians’ adoption of emerging technologies to a similar survey in 2016. Most notable was a doubling in the adoption of telehealth/virtual technology to 28% and increases in the use of remote monitoring and management for improved care (13–22%). These results may now seem insignificant when compared to the unprecedented surge in telehealth visits because of SARS-CoV-2. Even as this surge levels off and begins to decline, many observers believe we will continue to see a persistent increase in the use of virtual visits compared to face-to-face care. The requirements for adoption communicated by physicians in both the 2016 and 2019 surveys are now more relevant than ever: Is remote care as effective as in-person care and how best to determine when to use these modalities? How do I safeguard my patients and my practice from liability and privacy concerns? How do I optimize using these technologies in my practice and, especially integration with my EHR and workflows to improve efficiency? And how will a mix of virtual and in-person visits affect practice revenue and sustainability? Consumers have also expressed concerns about payment for virtual visits as well as privacy and quality of care. If telehealth and remote care are here to stay, continuing to track their impact during the current public health emergency is critically important to address so that policymakers and insurers will take necessary steps to ensure that the “new normal” will reflect a health care delivery model that can provide comparable or improved results today and into the future.

Coatings ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 484
Matthias Schuster ◽  
Dominik Stapf ◽  
Tobias Osterrieder ◽  
Vincent Barthel ◽  
Peter J. Wellmann

Copper indium gallium sulfo-selenide (CIGS) based solar cells show the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic competition. However, the absorber material manufacturing is in most cases dependent on vacuum-technology like sputtering and evaporation, and the use of toxic and environmentally harmful substances like H2Se. In this work, the goal to fabricate dense, coarse grained CuInSe2 (CISe) thin-films with vacuum-free processing based on nanoparticle (NP) precursors was achieved. Bimetallic copper-indium, elemental selenium and binary selenide (Cu2−xSe and In2Se3) NPs were synthesized by wet-chemical methods and dispersed in nontoxic solvents. Layer-stacks from these inks were printed on molybdenum coated float-glass-substrates via doctor-blading. During the temperature treatment, a face-to-face technique and mechanically applied pressure were used to transform the precursor-stacks into dense CuInSe2 films. By combining liquid phase sintering and pressure sintering, and using a seeding layer later on, issues like high porosity, oxidation, or selenium- and indium-depletion were overcome. There was no need for external Se atmosphere or H2Se gas, as all of the Se was directly in the precursor and could not leave the face-to-face sandwich. All thin-films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV/vis spectroscopy. Dense CISe layers with a thickness of about 2–3 µm and low band gap energies of 0.93–0.97 eV were formed in this work, which show potential to be used as a solar cell absorber.

2016 ◽  
Vol 2016 (4) ◽  
pp. 102-122 ◽  
Kassem Fawaz ◽  
Kyu-Han Kim ◽  
Kang G. Shin

AbstractWith the advance of indoor localization technology, indoor location-based services (ILBS) are gaining popularity. They, however, accompany privacy concerns. ILBS providers track the users’ mobility to learn more about their behavior, and then provide them with improved and personalized services. Our survey of 200 individuals highlighted their concerns about this tracking for potential leakage of their personal/private traits, but also showed their willingness to accept reduced tracking for improved service. In this paper, we propose PR-LBS (Privacy vs. Reward for Location-Based Service), a system that addresses these seemingly conflicting requirements by balancing the users’ privacy concerns and the benefits of sharing location information in indoor location tracking environments. PR-LBS relies on a novel location-privacy criterion to quantify the privacy risks pertaining to sharing indoor location information. It also employs a repeated play model to ensure that the received service is proportionate to the privacy risk. We implement and evaluate PR-LBS extensively with various real-world user mobility traces. Results show that PR-LBS has low overhead, protects the users’ privacy, and makes a good tradeoff between the quality of service for the users and the utility of shared location data for service providers.

Nidhi Phutela ◽  
Anubha Vashisht

Healthy profits are critical to any organization's survival and must be factored into key business decisions, including the decision to hold the customers with the firm. Though these benefits extend beyond the financial realm, organizations should focus more on customers because it makes good business sense. Therefore, to achieve operational excellence, a firm must integrate its sales and service functions across multiple channels that provide personalized services to its customers. From face-to-face contact to self-service websites, they must capitalize on every communication opportunity. Improving customer satisfaction is not enough, to stay competitive; firms must also focus on achieving customer delight. The value of relationships with customers is double the worth of measured brand value. Every single transaction with every customer is a big contributor to successful business. And, nowadays, organizations have started looking for various strategies that can satisfy, delight or excite customers. The most common strategy used is that of engaging its customers with a company or a brand. Vrious ways are adopted to engage customers both online and offline. It can be through extensive brand and product knowledge, discussion forums, personalized services like e-mails, sms etc. Online engagement tactics may bring a revolutionary change in the customer's mindset. Hence, the organization can shift its entire focus on Customers and must provide with an exceptional customer experience. Some of the strategies that can be implemented in this regard are: e-mail marketing and in-product messaging. E-mail Marketing is the commonly used approach by most of the firms these days. The purpose of sending e-mails can be numerous: feedback, upgrades, monthly newsletter, tradeshows, etc. But the question is what would be the response of the customers to these generalized mails. Will they take them on a serious not? The answer is a big ‘NO'. The customers would be appreciating these mails only and only if they are related to the specific interest of the customer. Personalized services steal a customer's heart at least to a certain extent. As far as the second approach is concerned, it is in-product messaging which is on a rise currently. It removes the hurdle of poor conversion rates as in the case of e-mail marketing, also, it focuses directly on customer. The aim of this chapter is to highlight the strategies of customer engagement in creating value satisfaction and thereby building customer loyalty leading to excellence in business, which is one of the key factors for excellence, with a special reference to online shopping. This chapter will provide theoretical framework to understand the relationship between excellence, customer Engagement and loyalty. This chapter is structured as follows. To start with, this chapter focuses on excellence of the business which benefits both the internal as well as the external customer, followed by the outcomes of previous investigations on conceptual framework of engagement.

2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 47-62 ◽  
Xinchao Huang ◽  
Zihan Liu ◽  
Wei Lu ◽  
Hongmei Liu ◽  
Shijun Xiang

Detecting digital audio forgeries is a significant research focus in the field of audio forensics. In this article, the authors focus on a special form of digital audio forgery—copy-move—and propose a fast and effective method to detect doctored audios. First, the article segments the input audio data into syllables by voice activity detection and syllable detection. Second, the authors select the points in the frequency domain as feature by applying discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to each audio segment. Furthermore, this article sorts every segment according to the features and gets a sorted list of audio segments. In the end, the article merely compares one segment with some adjacent segments in the sorted list so that the time complexity is decreased. After comparisons with other state of the art methods, the results show that the proposed method can identify the authentication of the input audio and locate the forged position fast and effectively.

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