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2021 ◽  
Samantha Waugh ◽  
James Devin ◽  
Alfred Lam ◽  
Vinod Gopalan

Abstract Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of online histopathology teaching in medical education during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Second-year medical students (n = 150) who had previously completed one year of face-to-face histopathology teaching, completed an online questionnaire rating their learning experiences before and during the COVID-19 pandemic after the completion of their histology and pathology practical sessions. The students' histopathology assessment results were then compared to the histopathology results of a prior second-year cohort to determine if the switch to online histopathology teaching had an impact on students' learning outcome. Results A thematic analysis of the qualitative comments strongly indicated that online histopathology teaching was instrumental, more comfortable to engage in and better structured compared to face-to-face teaching. Compared to the previous year's practical assessment, the mean overall mark was significantly improved from 65.36% ± 13.12–75.83% ± 14.84% (p < 0.05) during the COVID-19 impacted online teaching period. Conclusions The transformation of teaching methods during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic improved student engagement and positive learning outcomes in histology and pathology education.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Giovanna Elisa Calabrò ◽  
Elettra Carini ◽  
Alessia Tognetto ◽  
Silvia Mancinelli ◽  
Laura Sarnari ◽  

Background: Vaccination coverages need to be constantly maintained and improved with the implementation of vaccination strategies. This paper describes the development of an evidence-based tool to guide their planning and evaluation.Methods: A scoping review was performed in MEDLINE and institutional websites to search for similar available tools. A first version of the tool was developed considering review results and a four-step method used for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products, namely the Deming cycle. A panel of eight experts was then involved in a Delphi study for the finalization of the tool that was eventually discussed in a face-to-face meeting.Results: The scoping review found only one document and the first version of the tool was composed of 30 items. After the Delphi first round, 11 additional items were suggested and 5 original items amended. After the Delphi second round 41 items were eventually included. During the face-to-face meeting, 7 items were recognized as requisites for setting vaccination strategies, whereas 17 as relevant ones.Conclusions: Current public health challenges impose the need for evidence-based tools to organize effective vaccination strategies. Our tool is a first proposal which aims to reflect this focus.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105566562110217
Alexis C. Wood ◽  
C. Alejandra Garcia de Mitchell ◽  
Ruchi Kaushik

Objective: Identify factors contributing to time a family spends in a Multidisciplinary Craniofacial Team Clinic (MDCT) and implement an intervention to reduce this time. Design: Interventional: a restructuring of clinics to serve those patients requiring fewer provider encounters separately. Setting: An American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association-accredited MDCT in an academic children’s hospital. Patients/Participants: One hundred sixty-seven patients with craniofacial diagnoses. Interventions: Time data were tabulated over ∼2 years. Following 9 months of data collection, patients requiring fewer provider encounters were scheduled to a separate clinic serving children with craniosynostosis, and data were collected in the same fashion for another 14 months. Main Outcome Measures: Principal outcome measures included total visit time and proportion of the visit spent without a provider in the room before and after clinic restructuring. Results: The average time spent by family in a clinic session was 161.53 minutes, of which 64.3% was spent without a provider in the room. Prior to clinic restructuring, a greater number of provider encounters was inversely associated with percentage of time spent without a provider ( P < .001). Upon identifying this predictor, scheduling patients who needed fewer provider encounters to a Craniosynostosis Clinic session resulted in reduction in absolute and percentage of time spent without a provider ( P < .001). Conclusions: The number of provider encounters is a significant predictor of the proportion of a clinic visit spent without a provider. Clinic restructuring to remove patient visits that comprise fewer provider encounters resulted in a greater percentage of time spent with a provider in an MDCT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Manuel Pulido-Martos ◽  
Daniel Cortés-Denia ◽  
Esther Lopez-Zafra

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many employees to introduce different degrees of teleworking, leading to a transformation of the psychosocial work environment. In this study, we analyzed whether the relationship between a labor resource, social support, and a personal resource, vigor at work, is affected by the work modality (face-to-face, hybrid that includes face-to-face work and telework time, and telework caused by the current pandemic situation). Five hundred and forty-three employees answered an online questionnaire about their perceptions of the levels of social support, vigor experienced in the last month, and work modality. Seniority in the organization and the gender of the employees were controlled for. The model fit was significant [F(7, 535) = 20.816, p &lt; 0.001], accounting for 21% of the variation in vigor (R2 = 0.21). The interaction was also significant [F(2, 535) = 4.13, p &lt; 0.05], with an increase of 1% in the explanation of the variance in vigor at work (ΔR2 = 0.01). Differences were found in the positive relationship between levels of social support and vigor at work, among the face-to-face and telework modalities (hybrid and telework), but not between teleworking modalities. As a result, we posit that the different forms of telework moderate (buffer) the relationship experienced between labor resources (social support) and personal resources (vigor at work). This implies that, for the design of teleworking conditions, it is necessary to provide work resources similar to those in face-to-face settings, such as social support.

2021 ◽  
pp. 070674372110273
Irena Milosevic ◽  
Duncan H. Cameron ◽  
Melissa Milanovic ◽  
Randi E. McCabe ◽  
Karen Rowa

Objective: Telehealth is being increasingly incorporated into the delivery of mental health care and has received widespread attention during the COVID-19 pandemic for its ability to facilitate care during physical distancing restrictions. Videoconferencing is a common telehealth modality for delivering psychotherapy and has demonstrated similar outcomes to those of face-to-face therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the most common psychotherapy evaluated across various telehealth modalities; however, studies on CBT delivered via videoconference, particularly in a group therapy format, are lacking. Further, little research exists on videoconference group CBT for anxiety disorders. Accordingly, the present study compared the outcomes of group CBT for anxiety and related disorders delivered via videoconference versus face-to-face. Method: Using a non-randomized design, data on attendance, dropout, clinical outcomes, and functional impairment were collected from 413 adult outpatients of a tertiary care anxiety disorders clinic who attended a CBT group for panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or obsessive-compulsive disorder delivered either face-to-face (pre-COVID-19 pandemic) or via videoconference (since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic). Outcomes were assessed using well-validated self-report measures. Data were collected pre-treatment, across 12 weekly sessions, and post-treatment. Intent-to-treat analyses were applied to symptom outcome measures. Results: Face-to-face CBT conferred only a slight benefit over videoconference CBT for symptom outcomes across all groups, but when assessed individually, only the GAD group showed greater symptom improvement in the face-to-face format. Effect sizes for significant differences between the delivery formats were small. Participants in videoconference groups tended to have slightly higher attendance rates in some instances, whereas functional improvement and treatment dropout were comparable across the delivery formats. Conclusions: Results provide preliminary evidence that videoconference group CBT for anxiety and related disorders may be a promising and effective alternative to face-to-face CBT. Additional research is needed to establish equivalence between these delivery formats.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1357633X2110241
Zari Doaltabadi ◽  
Leila Amiri-Farahani ◽  
Seyedeh Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady ◽  
Shima Haghani

Introduction The spouse has a special role in promoting the health of mothers and infants during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum. Women's health during pregnancy requires the participation and cooperation of their spouses. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of face-to-face and virtual prenatal care training of spouses on the pregnancy experience and fear of childbirth of primiparous women. Methods This is a quasi-experimental clinical trial that was conducted on primiparous pregnant women referring to three prenatal clinics in Tehran, Iran. Sampling was done by available method and pregnant women were divided into three groups of face-to-face training ( n = 35), virtual training ( n = 35), and control ( n = 33). The content of training program in the virtual and face-to-face groups was similar and included; nutrition during pregnancy, emotional support, fetal growth and development, advantages and disadvantages of vaginal delivery, planning for delivery, infant care, and danger signs for infants, which were presented in four sessions. The samples in the control group did not receive any training. In the 18th and 20th weeks of pregnancy, the demographic information form, pregnancy experience scale, and version A of the Wijma delivery expectancy/experience questionnaires were completed, and once again in the 37th and 38th weeks of pregnancy, the pregnancy experience scale and version A of the Wijma delivery expectancy/experience questionnaires were completed. Results There was a statistically significant difference in the mean score of pregnancy experience after the intervention between the face-to-face training and control groups ( p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the mean score of uplifts between the two groups of face-to-face training and control ( p = 0.01), and also between virtual training and control groups ( p = 0.02). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups of face-to-face training and control in terms of and hassles score after the intervention ( p = 0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups of face-to-face training and control ( p = 0.02) and also between virtual training and control ( p = 0.04) in terms of the mean score of fear of childbirth after the intervention. Conclusion The results of this study showed that teaching prenatal care to spouses of primiparous women by face-to-face and virtual methods can be a useful intervention in improving the pregnancy experience and reducing the fear of childbirth among primiparous women.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 26-31
Ngoc Boi Trinh ◽  
Duy Thuy Thi Pham

As a great challenge to most English learners, speaking skills have aroused the interest of numerous researchers in many countries where English is taught as a foreign language. This study aimed to investigate some difficulties that students faced in speaking classrooms. A group of 57 participants at Tra Vinh university was selected to complete the questionnaires to find out students’ speaking problems from psychological and linguistic perspectives and 12 of them participated in the face-to face interviews. The results from the questionnaire revealed that non-English majors encountered more linguistic difficulties than psychological ones. Also, students’ psychological problems identified includes: pressure to perform well, being overpowered by more competent students, fear of making mistakes in front of the class and fear of criticism or losing face. The linguistic difficulties are lacking vocabulary and topical knowledge, being uncapable of arranging ideas logically, insufficient sentence formation skills and inappropriate vocabulary. The findings from the interview also showed that learners encountered more linguistic difficulties. Based on the findings above, some possible solutions are suggested to assist students in improving their speaking skills when acquiring English.

2021 ◽  
pp. bmjspcare-2020-002861
Shannon Milne ◽  
Jennifer Palfrey ◽  
Jane Berg ◽  
Jennifer Todd

BackgroundProviding care for our patients during the COVID-19 pandemic required a rapid shift to video consultations (VCs). A service evaluation was performed to capture hospice professionals’ (HPs) and patients’ experiences of VC.MethodsOnline or postal surveys were sent to HPs and patients, who had participated in VC between March and July 2020, focusing on their experience and satisfaction with the service.Results31 responses from HPs were received. 19 (61.3%) rated their experience of VC as good, despite 29 (93.5%) having no prior VC experience. One-third of HPs had undertaken potentially sensitive consultations, including resuscitation discussions. 23 (74.2%) undertook a VC that included a family member and 18 (58.1%) had included an external healthcare professional. 25 (80.6%) wanted to offer VC as an option going forward. Well-being staff successfully provided multiple group support sessions via video. 26 responses from patients (23) and carers (3) were received. 22 (84.6%) had access to a smartphone. 8 (30.8%) included a family member in their consultation. All patients/carers reported satisfaction with their VC, although 10 (38.5%) expressed a preference for face-to-face consultations. 22 (84.6%) patients would be happy to receive care via VC going forward and 21 (80.8%) stated they would recommend the use of VC to others.ConclusionPatients reported VC to be an acceptable way to receive support from a hospice service and HPs would like to continue to offer VC in the future. VC can be offered as an alternative to face-to-face consultations with the potential to continue and improve access to a wide range of hospice services.

2021 ◽  
pp. bmjspcare-2021-002987
Peter Eastman ◽  
Anna Dowd ◽  
Jacqui White ◽  
Jill Carter ◽  
Matthew Ely

Background/objectiveThe COVID-19 pandemic has brought the use of telehealth to the fore, as many people have been unable to interact directly with healthcare professionals (HCP). For community palliative care (CPC) services, this has meant a sudden change from a predominantly face-to-face model of care to one that incorporates telehealth. Understanding patient and HCP experiences with telehealth and how telehealth compares to ‘usual’ care will be crucial in planning future CPC services.MethodologyAll patients of the Barwon Health CPC service between 1 April and 31 May 2020 were invited to complete a questionnaire evaluating their interactions with the palliative care service and specifically their involvement with telehealth consultations. Palliative care HCP who provided clinical services during the same time period were also surveyed.Results/conclusionSeventy-four patients (response rate 36%) and 22 HCP returned surveys. Both groups felt comfortable using telehealth, however, also encountered a range of issues when undertaking telehealth consultations. Despite reporting issues, the preference of both groups was for a CPC service model, which combined face-to-face and telehealth consultations. This study is one of the first to directly ask this question and as such provides useful guidance for health services when planning future CPC service models.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-30
Risky Nugroho

This study aims to determine the application of the Blended Learning Method in PAI learning in the new normal era. This study uses a qualitative approach with interviews, observations and documentation as data collection techniques. The results of this study are: blended learning method is to combine two or more learning methods. Its application to PAI learning at SD Rejowinangun 1 Yogyakarta goes through three stages, namely (1) planning: preparing lesson plans and materials; (2) implementation: online, offline, and face-to-face consultation with health protocols; (3) evaluation. The advantage of this method is that the material can be conveyed comprehensively and the drawback is that it can potentially be exposed to the covid-19 virus because there is face-to-face. The expected positive impact from the results of this research is as information to educational institutions that Blended Learning is an alternative that is very suitable to be applied in the Covid19 Pandemic Era.

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