location based services
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Nisha Panwar ◽  
Shantanu Sharma ◽  
Guoxi Wang ◽  
Sharad Mehrotra ◽  
Nalini Venkatasubramanian ◽  

Contemporary IoT environments, such as smart buildings, require end-users to trust data-capturing rules published by the systems. There are several reasons why such a trust is misplaced—IoT systems may violate the rules deliberately or IoT devices may transfer user data to a malicious third-party due to cyberattacks, leading to the loss of individuals’ privacy or service integrity. To address such concerns, we propose IoT Notary , a framework to ensure trust in IoT systems and applications. IoT Notary provides secure log sealing on live sensor data to produce a verifiable “proof-of-integrity,” based on which a verifier can attest that captured sensor data adhere to the published data-capturing rules. IoT Notary is an integral part of TIPPERS, a smart space system that has been deployed at the University of California, Irvine to provide various real-time location-based services on the campus. We present extensive experiments over real-time WiFi connectivity data to evaluate IoT Notary , and the results show that IoT Notary imposes nominal overheads. The secure logs only take 21% more storage, while users can verify their one day’s data in less than 2 s even using a resource-limited device.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Peng Ye ◽  
Xueying Zhang ◽  
Chunju Zhang ◽  
Yulong Dang

In the big data era, spatial positioning based on location description is the foundation to the intelligent transformation of location-based-services. To solve the problem of vagueness in location description in different contexts, this paper proposes a positioning method based on supervaluation semantics. Firstly, through combing the laws of human spatial cognition, the types of elements that people pay attention to in location description are clarified. On this basis, the source of vagueness in the location description and its embodiment in the expression form of each element are analyzed from multiple levels. Secondly, the positioning model is constructed from the following three aspects: spatial object, distance relation and direction relation. The contexts of multiple location description are super-valued, respectively, while the threshold of observations is obtained from the context semantics. Thus, the precisification of location description is realized for positioning. Thirdly, a question-answering system is designed to the collect contexts of location description, and a case study on the method is conducted. The case can verify the transformation of a set of users’ viewpoints on spatial cognition into the real-world spatial scope, to realize the representation of vague location description in the geographic information system. The result shows that the method proposed in the paper breaks through the traditional vagueness modeling, which only focuses on spatial relationship, and enhances the interpretability of semantics of vague location description. Moreover, supervaluation semantics can obtain the precisification results of vague location description in different situations, and the positioning localities are more suitable to individual subjective cognition.

2022 ◽  
Md Mahbub Alam ◽  
Luis Torgo ◽  
Albert Bifet

Due to the surge of spatio-temporal data volume, the popularity of location-based services and applications, and the importance of extracted knowledge from spatio-temporal data to solve a wide range of real-world problems, a plethora of research and development work has been done in the area of spatial and spatio-temporal data analytics in the past decade. The main goal of existing works was to develop algorithms and technologies to capture, store, manage, analyze, and visualize spatial or spatio-temporal data. The researchers have contributed either by adding spatio-temporal support with existing systems, by developing a new system from scratch, or by implementing algorithms for processing spatio-temporal data. The existing ecosystem of spatial and spatio-temporal data analytics systems can be categorized into three groups, (1) spatial databases (SQL and NoSQL), (2) big spatial data processing infrastructures, and (3) programming languages and GIS software. Since existing surveys mostly investigated infrastructures for processing big spatial data, this survey has explored the whole ecosystem of spatial and spatio-temporal analytics. This survey also portrays the importance and future of spatial and spatio-temporal data analytics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Stefano Bennati ◽  
Aleksandra Kovacevic

AbstractMobility patterns of vehicles and people provide powerful data sources for location-based services such as fleet optimization and traffic flow analysis. Location-based service providers must balance the value they extract from trajectory data with protecting the privacy of the individuals behind those trajectories. Reaching this goal requires measuring accurately the values of utility and privacy. Current measurement approaches assume adversaries with perfect knowledge, thus overestimate the privacy risk. To address this issue, we introduce a model of an adversary with imperfect knowledge about the target. The model is based on equivalence areas, spatio-temporal regions with a semantic meaning, e.g. the target’s home, whose size and accuracy determine the skill of the adversary. We then derive the standard privacy metrics of k-anonymity, l-diversity and t-closeness from the definition of equivalence areas. These metrics can be computed on any dataset, irrespective of whether and what kind of anonymization has been applied to it. This work is of high relevance to all service providers acting as processors of trajectory data who want to manage privacy risks and optimize the privacy vs. utility trade-off of their services.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Wenjin Xu ◽  
Shaokang Dong

With the development of the wireless network, location-based services (e.g., the place of interest recommendation) play a crucial role in daily life. However, the data acquired is noisy, massive, it is difficult to mine it by artificial intelligence algorithm. One of the fundamental problems of trajectory knowledge discovery is trajectory segmentation. Reasonable segmentation can reduce computing resources and improvement of storage effectiveness. In this work, we propose an unsupervised algorithm for trajectory segmentation based on multiple motion features (TS-MF). The proposed algorithm consists of two steps: segmentation and mergence. The segmentation part uses the Pearson coefficient to measure the similarity of adjacent trajectory points and extract the segmentation points from a global perspective. The merging part optimizes the minimum description length (MDL) value by merging local sub-trajectories, which can avoid excessive segmentation and improve the accuracy of trajectory segmentation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, experiments are conducted on two real datasets. Evaluations of the algorithm’s performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art indicate the proposed method achieves the highest harmonic average of purity and coverage.

2022 ◽  
Vijay Kumar Yadav ◽  
Nitish Andola ◽  
Shekhar Verma ◽  
S Venkatesan

Oblivious transfer (OT) protocol is an essential tool in cryptography that provides a wide range of applications like secure multi-party computation, private information retrieval, private set intersection, contract signing, and privacy-preserving location-based services. The OT protocol has different variants such as one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , k -out-of- n , and OT extension. In the OT (one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , and OT extension) protocol, the sender has a set of messages, whereas the receiver has a key. The receiver sends that key to the sender in a secure way; the sender cannot get any information about the received key. The sender encrypts every message by operating on every message using the received key and sends all the encrypted messages to the receiver. The receiver is able to extract only the required message using his key. However, in the k -out-of- n OT protocol, the receiver sends a set of k keys to the sender, and in replay, the sender sends all the encrypted messages. The receiver uses his keys and extracts the required messages, but it cannot gain any information about the messages that it has not requested. Generally, the OT protocol requires high communication and computation cost if we transfer millions of oblivious messages. The OT extension protocol provides a solution for this, where the receiver transfers a set of keys to the sender by executing a few numbers of OT protocols. Then, the sender encrypts all the messages using cheap symmetric key cryptography with the help of a received set of keys and transfer millions of oblivious messages to the receiver. In this work, we present different variants of OT protocols such as one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , k -out-of- n , and OT extension. Furthermore, we cover various aspects of theoretical security guarantees such as semi-honest and malicious adversaries, universally composable, used techniques, computation, and communication efficiency aspects. From the analysis, we found that the semi-honest adversary-based OT protocols required low communication and computation costs as compared to malicious adversary-based OT protocols.

SinkrOn ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 83-92
Kiswanto Kiswanto ◽  
Elly Yanuarti ◽  
Benny Wijaya ◽  
Laurentinus Laurentinus ◽  
Supardi Supardi ◽  

Data technology has become the main means for activities in various sectors of life, one of which is location-based services for SMA/SMK schools in the Bangka Belitung area. By using a location-based service application, it is expected to be able to overcome the problem of finding the position of SMA/SMK in the Bangka Belitung area. In this study, we would like to discuss the search for SMA/SMK positions. Through the push, Location-Based Service will be displayed in the smartphone, which will help identify the presence of the school's position on the smartphone. The result of the application that is formed is an Android-based application that can recognize the presence of SMA/SMK positions. This study aims to create a location-based service application that is combined with the concept of overlaying geographic position information from augmented reality perception, which is one type of augmented reality. The overall application quality test results include 1). Based on the Functionality aspect, the percentage of the actual score got a total score of 91.8%. 2). Based on the aspect of reliability, the percentage of the actual score got a total score of 97.6%. 3). Based on the Usability aspect, the percentage of the actual score gets a total score of 92.2%. 4). Based on the aspect of efficiency, the percentage of the actual score gets a total value of 76.5%. 5). From the calculation of the total score in percent is 89.5%. So based on the total score in percent, it can be concluded that the overall application quality test results are 89.5%, so the prototypes produced in this study are included in very good criteria.

Shixun Wu ◽  
Min Li ◽  
Miao Zhang ◽  
Kai Xu ◽  
Juan Cao

AbstractMobile station (MS) localization in a cellular network is appealing to both industrial community and academia, due to the wide applications of location-based services. The main challenge is the unknown one-bound (OB) and multiple-bound (MB) scattering environment in dense multipath environment. Moreover, multiple base stations (BSs) are required to be involved in the localization process, and the precise time synchronization between MS and BSs is assumed. In order to address these problems, hybrid time of arrival (TOA), angle of departure (AOD), and angle of arrival (AOA) measurement model from the serving BS with the synchronization error is investigated in this paper. In OB scattering environment, four linear least square (LLS), one quadratic programming and data fusion-based localization algorithms are proposed to eliminate the effect of the synchronization error. In addition, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of our localization model on the root mean-square error (RMSE) is derived. In hybrid OB and MB scattering environment, a novel double identification algorithm (DIA) is proposed to identify the MB path. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms are capable to deal with the synchronization error, and LLS-based localization algorithms show better localization accuracy. Furthermore, the DIA can correctly identify the MB path, and the RMSE comparison of different algorithms further prove the effectiveness of the DIA.

Yanbing Ren ◽  
Xinghua Li ◽  
Yinbin Miao ◽  
Robert Deng ◽  
Jian Weng ◽  

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