In this work, a series of epoxy acrylate (EA)/mica composite coatings were synthesized through introducing mica powders of different particle size into epoxy acrylate coatings and using an ultraviolet (UV) curing technique to investigate the influence of mica particle size on the coatings. Mica powders of different particle sizes were obtained by ball-milling for 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h with a planetary high-energy ball mill. The particle size and morphologies of ball-milled mica powders were characterized by laser particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that planetary ball-milling reduced the particle size of mica powders effectively. Mica powders that were un-ball-milled and ball-milled were added into the epoxy acrylate matrix by a blending method to synthesize the organic-inorganic UV curable coatings. The optical photographs of the coatings showed greater stability of liquid mixtures with smaller particle size fillers. The chemical structures of EA/mica composite coatings were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the conversion rate of C=C bonds was calculated. The results indicated that the C=C conversion of coatings with mica powders of smaller particle sizes was higher. Tests of mechanical properties and tests using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that pencil hardness, impact resistance, and coating resistance were improved due to the reduction of mica powders particle size.
Laser cladding coating has many advantages in surface modification, such as a small heat-affected zone, and good metallurgical bonding. However, some serious problems such as pores, and poor forming quality still exist in the coating. To suppress these problems, a novel process of ultrasonic vibration-assisted laser cladding process was adopted to in-situ synthesize TiC/TiB composite ceramic coating on the surface of titanium alloy. Results showed that the introduction of ultrasonic vibration effectively improved the surface topography of the coating, reduced the number of pores in the coating, refined the crystal grains of the coating, decreased the residual tensile stress in the coating, and increased the micro-hardness of the coating. The tribological properties of the coating were significantly improved by the ultrasonic vibration, the wear resistance of the coating fabricated with ultrasonic vibration at power of 400 W increased about 1.2 times compared with the coating fabricated without ultrasonic vibration, and the friction coefficient decreased by 50%.
The present work introduces coordinative binding of CuII ions with both amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SNs) and green-emitting carbon dots (CDs) as the pregrequisite for the CuII-assisted self-assembly of the CDs at the surface of the SNs. The produced composite SNs exhibit stable in time stimuli-responsive green fluorescence derived from the CuII-assisted assemblage of CDs. The fluorescence response of the composite SNs is sensitive to the complex formation with glutathione (GSH), enabling them to detect it with the lower limit of detection of 0.15 μM. The spin-trap-facilitated electron spin resonance technique indicated that the composite SNs are capable of self-boosting generation of ROS due to CuII→CuI reduction by carbon in low oxidation states as a part of the CDs. The intensity of the ESR signals is enhanced under the heating to 38 °C. The intensity is suppressed at the GSH concentration of 0.35 mM but is enhanced at 1.0 mM of glutathione, while it is suppressed once more at the highest intracellular concentration level of GSH (10 mM). These tendencies reveal the concentrations optimal for the scavenger or reductive potential of GSH. Flow cytometry and fluorescence and confocal microscopy methods revealed efficient cell internalization of SNs-NH2-CuII-CDs comparable with that of “free” CDs.
It has always been a huge challenge to prepare the Mo back contact of inorganic compound thin film solar cells (e.g., CIGS, CZTS, Sb2Se3) with good conductivity and adhesion at the same time. High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been proposed as one solution to improve the properties of the thin film. In this study, the HiPIMS technology replaced the traditional DC power sputtering technology to deposit Mo back contact on polyimide (PI) substrates by adjusting the experimental parameters of HiPIMS, including working pressure and pulse DC bias. When the Mo back contact is prepared under a working pressure of 5 mTorr and bias voltage of −20 V, the conductivity of the Mo back contact is 9.9 × 10−6 Ωcm, the residual stress of 720 MPa, and the film still has good adhesion. Under the minimum radius of curvature of 10 mm, the resistivity change rate of Mo back contact does not increase by more than 15% regardless of the 1680 h or 1500 bending cycle tests, and the Mo film still has good adhesion in appearance. Experimental results show that, compared with traditional DC sputtering, HiPIMS coating technology has better conductivity and adhesion at the same time, and is especially suitable for PI substrates.
The mass and heat transfer magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows have a substantial use in heat exchangers, electromagnetic casting, X-rays, the cooling of nuclear reactors, mass transportation, magnetic drug treatment, energy systems, fiber coating, etc. The present work numerically explores the mass and heat transportation flow of MHD micropolar fluid with the consideration of a chemical reaction. The flow is taken between the walls of a permeable channel. The quasi-linearization technique is utilized to solve the complex dynamical coupled and nonlinear differential equations. The consequences of the preeminent parameters are portrayed via graphs and tables. A tabular and graphical comparison evidently reveals a correlation of our results with the existing ones. A strong deceleration is found in the concentration due to the effect of a chemical reaction. Furthermore, the impact of the magnetic field force is to devaluate the mass and heat transfer rates not only at the lower but at the upper channel walls, likewise.
While deposited thin film coatings can help enhance surface characteristics such as hardness and friction, their effective incorporation in product design is restricted by the limited understanding of their mechanical behavior. To address this, an approach combining micro-indentation and meso/micro-scale simulations was proposed. In this approach, micro-indentation testing was conducted on both the coating and the substrate. A meso-scale uniaxial compression finite element model was developed to obtain a material model of the coating. This material model was incorporated within an axisymmetric micro-scale model of the coating to simulate the indentation. The proposed approach was applied to a Ti/SiC metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) coating, with a 5% weight of SiC nanoparticles deposited over a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using selective laser melting (SLM). Micro-indentation testing was conducted on both the Ti/SiC MMNC coating and the Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The results of the meso-scale finite element indicated that the MMNC coating can be represented using a bi-linear elastic-plastic material model, which was incorporated within an axisymmetric micro-scale model. Comparison of the experimental and micro-scale model results indicated that the proposed approach was effective in capturing the post-indentation behavior of the Ti/SiC MMNC coating. This methodology can also be used for studying the response of composite coatings with different percentages of reinforcements.
We report the growth of non-polar GaN and AlGaN films on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PA-MOCVD). Low-temperature growth of GaN or AlN was used as a buffer layer to overcome the lattice mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient between GaN and Si(111) and GaN’s poor wetting on Si(111). As grown, the buffer layer is amorphous, and it crystalizes during annealing to the growth temperature and then serves as a template for the growth of GaN or AlGaN. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization to investigate the influence of the buffer layer on crystal structure, orientation, and the morphology of GaN. We found that the GaN buffer layer is superior to the AlN buffer layer. The thickness of the GaN buffer layer played a critical role in the crystal quality and plane orientation and in reducing the cracks during the growth of GaN/Si(111) layers. The optimum GaN buffer layer thickness is around 50 nm, and by using the optimized GaN buffer layer, we investigated the growth of AlGaN with varying Al compositions. The morphology of the AlGaN films is flat and homogenous, with less than 1 nm surface roughness, and has preferred orientation in a-axis.
In this study, cadmium Sulfide (CdS) thin films were synthesized on quartz substrates using an infrared pulsed laser deposition (IR-PLD) technique under high vacuum (~10−6 Torr) conditions. X-ray diffraction was used to evaluate the structural features. According to X-ray analysis, the deposited CdS films are crystalline and have a favored orientation on a plane (110) of an orthorhombic. The peak intensity and the average crystallite size increases with increasing the film thickness. After annealing at 300 °C, the orthorhombic phase transformed into a predominant hexagonal phase and the same result was obtained by SEM photographs as well. Spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance and reflectance of the CdS films were used to derive optical constants (n, k, and absorption coefficient α). The optical band gap energy was found to be 2.44 eV. The plasma plume formation and expansion during the film deposition have also been discussed. The photocurrent response as a function of the incident photon energy E (eV) at different bias voltages for different samples of thicknesses (85, 180, 220 and 340 nm) have been studied, indicating that the photocurrent increases by increasing both the film thickness and photon energy with a peak in the vicinity of the band edge. Thus, the prepared CdS films are promising for application in optoelectronic field.
Considering the significance of its demand around the world, the accurate determination of fish freshness with a simple and rapid procedure has become an interesting issue for the fishing industry. Hence, we aimed to fabricate a new optical pH sensor based on a polyelectrolyte (PEC) membrane of pectin–chitosan and the active material chromoionophore ETH 5294. A trial-and-error investigation of the polymer compositions revealed that the optimum ratio of pectin to chitosan was 3:7. With an optimum wavelength region (λ) at 610 nm, the constructed sensor was capable of stable responses after 5 min exposure to phosphate-buffered solution. Furthermore, the obtained sensor achieved optimum sensitivity when the PBS concentration was 0.1 M, while the relative standard deviation values ranged from 2.07 to 2.34%, suggesting good reproducibility. Further investigation revealed that the sensor experienced decreased absorbance of 16.67–18.68% after 25 days of storage. Employing the optimum conditions stated previously, the sensor was tested to monitor fish freshness in samples that were stored at 4 °C and ambient temperature. The results suggested that the newly fabricated optical sensor could measure pH changes on fish skin after 25 h storage at room temperature (pH 6.37, 8.91 and 11.02, respectively) and 4 °C (pH 6.8, 7.31 and 7.92, respectively).
The development of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) YBa2Cu3O7~δ (Y123) bulks in industrial applications were established years ago. It is one of the developments that currently attracts great attention especially in transportation, superconductor cables and wires. This study is focused on the preparation of the Y123 bulk superconductors by the thermal treatment method due to the promising ways to develop high-quality Y123 superconductors with its simplicity, low cost, and relatively low reaction temperature used during the process. Y123 were added with graphene nanoparticles (x = (0.0–1.0) wt.%). Samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and alternating current susceptibility (ACS). It was found that Y123 confirmed that the majority of phases in all the XRD patterns was the orthorhombic crystal structure and the Pmmm space group with secondary phases belonged to Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (Y211). The highest Tc obtained when graphene nanoparticles were added in the Y123 sample was x = 1.0 wt.%, followed by x = 0.5 wt.% with 92.64 and 92.59 K, respectively. From the microstructure analysis, the average grain size significantly decreased to 4.754 µm at x = 0.5 wt.%. The addition of graphene nanoparticles had disturbed the grain growth of Y123, affecting the superconducting properties of the samples. On the other hand, the intergranular critical current density, Jcm, was found to increase with graphene nanoparticle addition and had the highest value at x = 1.0 wt.%, indicating that graphene nanoparticles acted as pinning centers in the Y123 matrix.