Evaluation of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocol Including Parasternal Intercostal Nerve Block in Cardiac Surgery Requiring Sternotomy

2021 ◽  
pp. 000313482110246
Arad Abadi ◽  
Robbin Cohen

Background Recent guidelines for perioperative care in cardiac surgery recommend multimodal pain management to decrease opioid use. We evaluated the effect of multimodal pain management including parasternal intercostal nerve block on pain control and opioid use in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) requiring sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. Study Design Medical records of consecutive patients who underwent CABG from 2018 to 2019 at Huntington Hospital were retrospectively queried. Patients were divided in 2 groups based on whether an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pain management protocol including parasternal intercostal nerve blocks was employed. Outcomes, including length of stay, pain scores, and opioid use, were compared. Results There was no difference in length of stay (days) 5.43 vs. 5.38 ( P = .45 and average pain score 2.23 vs. 3.27 ( P = .137) for patients in the ERAS and non-ERAS groups. Maximum pain score, 7.74 to 6.15 ( P = .015), and opioid use (total morphine mg equivalent), 149.64 to 32.01 ( P < .01), were reduced in the ERAS group. Conclusion The ERAS multimodal pain management protocol utilizing intraoperative parasternal blocks appears to reduce pain and decrease opioid use after CABG.

2019 ◽  
Vol 35 (09) ◽  
pp. 695-704 ◽  
Carol E. Soteropulos ◽  
Sherry Y.Q. Tang ◽  
Samuel O. Poore

Background Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) principles have received focused attention in breast reconstruction. Many protocols have been described in the literature for both autologous and alloplastic reconstruction. This systematic review serves to better characterize successful ERAS protocols described in the literature for potential ease of adoption at institutions desiring implementation. Methods A systematic review of ERAS protocols for autologous and alloplastic breast reconstruction was conducted using Medline, the Cochrane Database, and Web of Science. Results Eleven cohort studies evaluating ERAS protocols for autologous (n = 8) and alloplastic (n = 3) breast reconstruction were included for review. The majority compared with a retrospective cohort of traditional perioperative care. All studies described the full spectrum of implemented ERAS protocols including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of care. Most frequently reported significant outcomes were reduced length of stay and opioid use with ERAS implementation. No significant change in major complication or readmission rate was demonstrated. Conclusion Based on this systematic review, several core elements that make up a successful perioperative enhanced recovery protocol for breast reconstruction have been identified. Elements include patient counseling and education, limited preoperative fasting, appropriate thromboprophylaxis and antibiotic prophylaxis dependent on reconstructive method, preoperative antiemetics, multimodal analgesia and use of local anesthetic, goal-directed intravenous fluid management, prompt removal of drains and catheters, early diet advancement, and encouragement of ambulation postoperatively. Implementation of ERAS protocols in both autologous and alloplastic breast reconstruction can positively enhance patient experience and improve outcomes by reducing length of stay and opioid use, without compromising successful reconstructive outcomes.

Jared L. Tepper ◽  
Olivia M. Harris ◽  
Jourdan E. Triebwasser ◽  
Stephanie H. Ewing ◽  
Aasta D. Mehta ◽  

Objective Opioid prescription after cesarean delivery is excessive and can lead to chronic opioid use disorder. We assessed the impact of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway on inpatient opioid consumption after cesarean delivery. Study Design An ERAS pathway was implemented as a quality improvement initiative in December 2019. Preintervention (PRE) data were collected from March to May 2019 to assess baseline opioid consumption. Postintervention (POST) data were collected from January to March 2020. The primary outcome was inpatient postoperative opioid consumption in morphine milligram equivalents (MME). Secondary outcomes included the consumption of any opioids, postpartum length of stay, and opioid prescription at discharge. Results A total of 92 women were in the PRE group and 91 were in the POST group. Inpatient opioid consumption decreased by 87.3% from PRE to POST, from 124.7 (interquartile range [IQR]: 10–181.6) MME to 15.8 (IQR: 0–75) MME (p < 0.001). There was no difference in median postpartum length of stay (3.4 days PRE vs. 3.3 days POST; p = 0.12). The proportion of women who did not consume any opioids increased by 75.4% from PRE to POST (p = 0.02). The proportion of women discharged with an opioid prescription decreased by 25.6% from PRE to POST (p = 0.007), despite no formal change to prescribing practices. After adjustment for differences in race/ethnicity and gravidity, there was still a reduction in total inpatient opioid consumption (p < 0.001) and an increase in the proportion of women not consuming any opioids (adjusted relative risk (RR): 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18–3.87), but the difference in rate of prescription of opioids at discharge was no longer statistically significant (adjusted RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48–1.02). Conclusion Adoption of an ERAS pathway for cesarean delivery resulted in a marked reduction in inpatient opioid consumption. Such a pathway can be implemented across institutions and may be a powerful tool in combating the opioid epidemic. Key Points

Pain Medicine ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (12) ◽  
pp. 3283-3291
Tracy M Flanders ◽  
Joseph Ifrach ◽  
Saurabh Sinha ◽  
Disha S Joshi ◽  
Ali K Ozturk ◽  

Abstract Objective Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways have previously been shown to be feasible and safe in elective spinal procedures. As publications on ERAS pathways have recently emerged in elective neurosurgery, long-term outcomes are limited. We report on our 18-month experience with an ERAS pathway in elective spinal surgery. Methods A historical cohort of 149 consecutive patients was identified as the control group, and 1,141 patients were prospectively enrolled in an ERAS protocol. The primary outcome was the need for opioid use one month postoperation. Secondary outcomes were opioid and nonopioid consumption on postoperative day (POD) 1, opioid use at three and six months postoperation, inpatient pain scores, patient satisfaction scores, postoperative Foley catheter use, mobilization/ambulation on POD0–1, length of stay, complications, and intensive care unit admissions. Results There was significant reduction in use of opioids at one, three, and six months postoperation (38.6% vs 70.5%, P &lt; 0.001, 36.5% vs 70.9%, P &lt; 0.001, and 23.6% vs 51.9%, P = 0.008) respectively. Both groups had similar surgical procedures and demographics. PCA use was nearly eliminated in the ERAS group (1.4% vs 61.6%, P &lt; 0.001). ERAS patients mobilized faster on POD0 compared with control (63.5% vs 20.7%, P &lt; 0.001). Fewer patients in the ERAS group required postoperative catheterization (40.7% vs 32.7%, P &lt; 0.001). The ERAS group also had decreased length of stay (3.4 vs 3.9 days, P = 0.020). Conclusions ERAS protocols for all elective spine and peripheral nerve procedures are both possible and effective. This standardized approach to patient care decreases opioid usage, eliminates the use of PCAs, mobilizes patients faster, and reduces length of stay.

2018 ◽  
Vol 29 (3) ◽  
pp. 276-281 ◽  
Michael J VanWagner ◽  
Nathan M Krebs ◽  
William Corser ◽  
Christopher N Johnson

Background: Optimising postoperative pain management after total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been associated with improved patient outcomes. However, conclusions regarding the role of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) during THA remain mixed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether substituting a standard intraoperative wound infiltrate with LB as part of a multimodal pain management protocol would decrease subsequent opioid consumption and overall length of hospital stay in patients undergoing primary THA. Methods: Data was retrospectively collected on 170 consecutive patients who underwent primary THA at a single institution from January 2014 to October 2014. Outcomes from the first 85 patients who received intraoperative LB were compared to the prior 85 patients who received a standard intraoperative “cocktail” without LB. The remainder of the multimodal pain management protocol was identical between groups. Results: Total continuous and categorical postoperative hospital opioid consumption rates in the LB subgroup were significantly lower than the non-LB subgroup ( p < 0.001). The use of LB was associated with a relative reduction in opioid consumption on the day of surgery ( p = 0.001), postoperative day 1 ( p < 0.001), postoperative day 2 ( p < 0.001) and postoperative day 3 ( p < 0.001). Patients who received LB had decreased length of stay ( p = 0.001) and were discharged on lower doses of opioids. Conclusion: Substituting to LB from a standard wound infiltrate during primary THA, in addition to our standard multimodal pain management protocol, resulted in significantly lower postoperative opioid consumption and decreased length of stay.

Caitlin A. MacGregor ◽  
Mark Neerhof ◽  
Mary J. Sperling ◽  
David Alspach ◽  
Beth A. Plunkett ◽  

Objective This study aimed to evaluate whether implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol is associated with lower maternal opioid use after cesarean delivery (CD). Study Design We performed a pre- and postimplementation (PRE and POST, respectively) study of an ERAS protocol for cesarean deliveries. ERAS is a multimodal, multidisciplinary perioperative approach. The four pillars of our protocol include education, pain management, nutrition, and early ambulation. Patients were counseled by their outpatient providers and given an educational booklet. Pain management included gabapentin and acetaminophen immediately prior to spinal anesthesia. Postoperatively patients received scheduled acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Oxycodone was initiated as needed 24 hours after spinal analgesia. Preoperative diet consisted of clear carbohydrate drink consumed 2 hours prior to scheduled operative time with advancement as tolerated immediately postoperation. Women with a body mass index (BMI) <40 kg/m2 and scheduled CD were eligible for ERAS. PRE patients were randomly selected from repeat cesarean deliveries (RCDs) at a single site from October 2017 to September 2018, BMI <40 kg/m2, without trial of labor. The POST cohort included women who participated in ERAS from October 2018 to June 2019. PRE and POST demographic and clinical characteristics were compared. Primary outcome was total postoperative morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs). Secondary outcomes included length of stay (LOS) and maximum postoperative day 2 (POD2) pain score. Results All women in PRE (n = 70) had RCD compared with 66.2% (49/74) in POST. Median total postoperative MMEs were 140.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 87.5–182.5) in PRE compared with 0.0 (IQR: 0.0–72.5) in POST (p < 0.001). Median LOS in PRE was 4.02 days (IQR: 3.26–4.27) compared with 2.37 days (IQR: 2.21–3.26) in POST (p < 0.001). Mean maximum POD2 pain score was 5.28 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.86) in PRE compared with 4.67 (SD = 1.63) in POST (p = 0.04). Conclusion ERAS protocol was associated with decreased postoperative opioid use, shorter LOS, and decreased pain after CD. Key Points

2019 ◽  
Vol 130 (5) ◽  
pp. 1227-1232 ◽  
Danny B. Jandali ◽  
Deborah Vaughan ◽  
Michael Eggerstedt ◽  
Ashwin Ganti ◽  
Holly Scheltens ◽  

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