Opioid Use
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2021 ◽  
Matthew C. Sullivan ◽  
Colleen Mistler ◽  
Michael M. Copenhaver ◽  
Jeffrey A. Wickersham ◽  
Zhao Ni ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 175857322110607
Michelle Xiao ◽  
Daniel M Curtis ◽  
Emilie V Cheung ◽  
Michael T Freehill ◽  
Geoffrey D Abrams

Background The purpose of this investigation was to compare rates of filled opioid prescriptions and prolonged opioid use in opioid naïve patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) in inpatient versus outpatient settings. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a national insurance claims database. Inpatient and outpatient cohorts were created by identifying continuously enrolled, opioid naïve TSA patients. A greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm was used to match baseline demographic characteristics between cohorts with a 1:1 inpatient to outpatient ratio to compare the primary outcomes of filled opioid prescriptions and prolonged opioid use following surgery between cohorts. Results A total of 11,703 opioid naïve patients (mean age 72.5 ± 8.5 years, 54.5% female, 87.6% inpatient) were included for analysis. After propensity score matching (n = 1447 inpatients; n = 1447 outpatients), outpatient TSA patients were significantly more likely to fill an opioid prescription in the perioperative window compared to inpatients (82.9% versus 71.5%, p < 0.001). No significant differences in prolonged opioid use were detected (5.74% inpatient versus 6.77% outpatient; p = 0.25). Conclusions Outpatient TSA patients were more likely to fill opioid prescriptions compared to inpatient TSA patients. The quantity of opioids prescribed and rates of prolonged opioid use were similar between the cohorts. Level of evidence Therapeutic Level III.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107110072110581
Wenye Song ◽  
Naohiro Shibuya ◽  
Daniel C. Jupiter

Background: Ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus have long been recognized as a challenge to practicing clinicians. Ankle fracture patients with diabetes may experience prolonged healing, higher risk of hardware failure, an increased risk of wound dehiscence and infection, and higher pain scores pre- and postoperatively, compared to patients without diabetes. However, the duration of opioid use among this patient cohort has not been previously evaluated. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare the time span of opioid utilization between ankle fracture patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using our institution’s TriNetX database. A total of 640 ankle fracture patients were included in the analysis, of whom 73 had diabetes. All dates of opioid use for each patient were extracted from the data set, including the first and last date of opioid prescription. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were employed to explore the differences in opioid use between patients with and without diabetes after ankle fracture repair. A 2-tailed P value of .05 was set as the threshold for statistical significance. Results: Logistic regression models revealed that patients with diabetes are less likely to stop using opioids within 90 days, or within 180 days, after repair compared to patients without diabetes. Female sex, neuropathy, and prefracture opioid use are also associated with prolonged opioid use after ankle fracture repair. Conclusion: In our study cohort, ankle fracture patients with diabetes were more likely to require prolonged opioid use after fracture repair. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jin-Ping Zhao ◽  
Christelle Berthod ◽  
Odile Sheehy ◽  
Behrouz Kassaï ◽  
Jessica Gorgui ◽  

Abstract Background Recent studies show a rapid growth among pregnant women using high potency opioids for common pain management during their pregnancy. No study has examined the duration of treatment among strong opioid users and weak opioid users during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of prescribed opioid use during pregnancy, in Quebec; and to compare the duration of opioid treatment between strong opioid users and weak opioid users. Methods Using the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort (1998–2015), we included all pregnancies covered by the Quebec Public Prescription Drug Insurance Program. Opioid exposure was defined as filled at least one prescription for any opioid during pregnancy or before pregnancy but with a duration that overlapped the beginning of pregnancy. Prevalence of opioids use was calculated for all pregnancies, according to pregnancy outcome, trimester of exposure, and individual opioids. The duration of opioid use during pregnancy was analyzed according to 8 categories based on cumulative duration (< 90 days vs. ≥90 days), duration of action (short-acting vs. long-acting) and strength of the opioid (weak vs. strong). Results Of 442,079 eligible pregnancies, 20,921 (4.7%) were exposed to opioids. Among pregnancies ending with deliveries (n = 249,234), 5.4% were exposed to opioids; the prevalence increased by 40.3% from 3.9% in 1998 to 5.5% in 2015, more specifically a significant increase in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Weak opioid, codeine was the most commonly dispensed opioid (70% of all dispensed opioids), followed by strong opioid, hydromorphone (11%), morphine (10%), and oxycodone (5%). The prevalence of codeine use decreased by 47% from 4.3% in 2005 to 2.3% in 2015, accompanied by an increased use of strong opioid, morphine (0.029 to 1.41%), hydromorphone (0.115 to 1.08%) and oxycodone (0.022 to 0.44%), from 1998 to 2015. The average durations of opioid exposure were significantly longer among pregnancies exposed to strong opioid as compared to weak opioid regardless of the cumulative duration or duration of action (P < 0.05). Conclusions Given the differences in the safety profile between strong opioids and the major weak opioid codeine, the increased use of strong opioids during pregnancy with longer treatment duration raises public health concerns.

2021 ◽  
Helena A. Rempala ◽  
Justin A. Barterian

Abstract Background: Neurofeedback (NF) has been described as “probably efficacious” when used in conjunction with other interventions for substance use disorders, including the most recent studies in population of individuals with opioid use disorder. Despite these promising outcomes, the seriousness of the opioid epidemic, and the high rate of relapse even with the most effective medication-assisted maintenance treatments NF continues to be an under-researched treatment modality. This article explores factors that affected the feasibility of adding Alpha/Theta Neurofeedback to treatment as usual for opioid dependence in an outpatient urban treatment center. The study strived to replicate previous research completed in Iran that found benefits of NF for opioid dependence.Methods: Out of approximately two dozen patients eligible for Alpha/Theta NF, about 60% (n=15) agreed to participate; however, only 2 participants completed treatment. The rates of enrollment in response to active treatment were monitored. Results: The 4 factors affecting feasibility were: 1) the time commitment required of participants, 2) ineffectiveness of standard incentives to promote participation, 3) delayed effects of training, and 4) the length and number of treatments required.Conclusion: The findings indicate a large scale study examining the use of NF for the treatment of opioid use disorder in the United States will likely be difficult to accomplish without modification to the traditional randomized control study approach and suggests challenges to the implementation of this treatment in an outpatient setting.

Nicholas A. Giordano ◽  
Krista B. Highland ◽  
Vi Nghiem ◽  
Maya Scott-Richardson ◽  
Michael Kent

2021 ◽  
Katherine L Potaka ◽  
Rebecca Freeman ◽  
Danny Soo ◽  
Nam-Anh Nguyen ◽  
Tin Fei Sim ◽  

Abstract BackgroundOpioid-related overdoses cause substantial numbers of preventable deaths. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist available in take-home naloxone (THN) kits as a lifesaving measure for opioid overdose. As the emergency department (ED) is a primary point of contact for patients with high-risk opioid use, evidence-based recommendations from the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia THN practice guidelines include the provision of THN, accompanied by psychosocial interventions. However, implementation of these guidelines in practice is unknown. This study investigated ED opioid-related overdose presentations, concordance of post-overdose interventions with the THN practice guidelines, and the impact, if any, of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic on case presentations.MethodsA single-centre retrospective audit was conducted at a major tertiary hospital of patients presenting with overdoses involving opioids and non-opioids between March to August 2019 and March to August 2020. Patient presentations and interventions delivered by the paramedics, ED and upon discharge from the ED were collated from medical records and analysed using descriptive statistics, chi square and independent T-tests.ResultsThe majority (66.2%) of patients presented to hospital with mixed drug overdoses involving opioids and non-opioids. Pharmaceutical opioids were implicated in a greater proportion (72.1%) of overdoses than illicit opioids. Fewer patients presented in March to August 2020 as compared with 2019 (26 vs. 42), and mixed drug overdoses were more frequent in 2020 than 2019 (80.8% vs. 57.1%). Referral to outpatient psychology (22.0%) and drug and alcohol services (20.3%) were amongst the most common post-discharge interventions. Naloxone was provided to 28 patients (41.2%) by the paramedics and/or ED. No patients received THN upon discharge.ConclusionsThis study highlights opportunities to improve ED provision of THN and other interventions post-opioid overdose. Large-scale multi-centre studies are required to ascertain the capacity of EDs to provide THN and the impact of COVID-19 on opioid overdose presentations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Feler Bose ◽  
Percy Menzies ◽  
Fred Rottnek

Abstract The objective of the paper is to understand the impact of the COVID-19 focusing event that resulted in a distinctive response by the Federal government. The paper focuses on the rapid deregulation that occurred in the opioid use disorder treatments. We frame the narrative using primarily the economic literature on deregulation during a crisis. The temporary deregulation has significantly increased access to treatment and medications and allows for the discovering of a different equilibrium. We also suggest other deregulations that need to be considered. In this paper, we suggest that the provisional deregulations should be made permanent to improve the outcome of the patients who abuse opioids.

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