pain management
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2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 110583
Alexander Fuchs ◽  
Paul Philipp Heinisch ◽  
Markus M. Luedi ◽  
Catherine S. Reid

Magdalena Napiórkowska-Orkisz ◽  
Aleksandra Gutysz-Wojnicka ◽  
Mariola Tanajewska ◽  
Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the severity of pain experienced by a newborn during a heel puncture for screening using the Newborn Pain Scale (NIPS), measure the heart rate and compare the effectiveness of non-pharmacological methods of pain control. Design: Randomized clinical trial. No experimental factors. The test was performed during routine screening. Surroundings: Provincial Specialist Hospital in Olsztyn. Patients/Participants: Pain was assessed in 90 full-term newborns. The newborns were rooming in with their mothers in the hospital. Interventions: Newborns were divided into three groups. Three different methods of pain relief were used: breastfeeding, 20% glucose administered orally and non-nutritional sucking. Main Outcome Measures: The primary pain outcome was measured using the NIPS and the secondary pain outcome measures (heart rate, oxygen saturation) were measured using a pulse oximeter. Results: During capillary blood sampling from the heel, most newborns, n = 56 (62.2%), experienced no pain or mild discomfort, severe pain occurred in n = 23 (25.6%) and moderate pain occurred in n = 11 (12.2%). No significant statistical differences were found between the degree of pain intensity and the intervention used to minimize the pain p = 0.24. Statistically significant relationships were demonstrated between heart rate variability and the degree of pain intensity (p = 0. 01). There were no statistically significant differences between the newborn’s pain intensity and the mother’s opinion on the effectiveness of breastfeeding in minimizing pain. Conclusions: This study did not answer the question of which pain management method used during the heel prick was statistically more effective in reducing pain. However, the results indicate that each of the non-pharmacological interventions (breastfeeding, oral glucose dosing and non-nutritive sucking) applied during heel puncture resulted in effective pain management in most of the newborns enrolled in the study. The relationship between heart rate variability and the severity of pain was confirmed. Mothers of newborns in the breastfeeding group were satisfied with the pain relief methods used in the child and the opportunity to console their newborn during painful procedures in a technologically invasive environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 38-39
Timothy H. Wideman ◽  
Peter Stilwell

Too often, pain is reduced to a simple symptom of illness or injury – a puzzle piece to fit into the differential diagnostic jigsaw. Pain reports that fit the emerging pathoanatomical picture are validated and treated accordingly. But many reports don’t fit this picture, and the widespread stigma associated with persistent pain is most commonly directed toward these individuals, whose symptoms aren’t well explained by known pain mechanisms. A root problem is not seeing the person in pain or the suffering they experience. This presentation aims to help participants develop a more comprehensive perspective on pain that better integrates its complexities within clinical practice. Participants will be introduced to the Multi-modal Assessment model of Pain (MAP; Wideman et al, Clinical Journal of Pain 2019; 35(3): 212). MAP offers a novel framework to understand the fundamentally subjective natures of pain and suffering and how they can be best addressed within clinical practice. MAP aims to help clinicians view pain, first and foremost, as an experience (like sadness), which may or may not correspond to specific pathology or diagnostic criteria (like clinical depression). MAP aims to facilitate a more compassionate approach to pain management by providing a rationale for why all reported pain should be validated, even when poorly understood. Viewing pain in this manner helps highlight the central importance of listening to patients’ narrative reports, trying to understand the meaning and context for their experiences of pain and using this understanding to help alleviate suffering.

2022 ◽  
Roberta Gualtierotti ◽  
Francesco Tafuri ◽  
Sara Arcudi ◽  
Pier Luigi Solimeno ◽  
Jacopo Acquati ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 019459982110711
Michael T. Chang ◽  
M. Lauren Lalakea ◽  
Kimberly Shepard ◽  
Micah Saste ◽  
Amanda Munoz ◽  

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of implementing a standardized multimodal perioperative pain management protocol in reducing opioid prescriptions following otolaryngologic surgery. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting County hospital otolaryngology practice. Methods A perioperative pain management protocol was implemented in adults undergoing otolaryngologic surgery. This protocol included preoperative patient education and a postoperative multimodal pain regimen stratified by pain level: mild, intermediate, and high. Opioid prescriptions were compared between patient cohorts before and after protocol implementation. Patients in the pain protocol were surveyed regarding pain levels and opioid use. Results We analyzed 210 patients (105 preprotocol and 105 postprotocol). Mean ± SD morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) prescribed decreased from 132.5 ± 117.8 to 53.6 ± 63.9 ( P < .05) following protocol implementation. Mean MMEs prescribed significantly decreased ( P < .05) for each procedure pain tier: mild (107.4 to 40.5), intermediate (112.8 to 48.1), and high (240.4 to 105.0). Mean MMEs prescribed significantly decreased ( P < .05) for each procedure type: endocrine (105.6 to 44.4), facial plastics (225.0 to 50.0), general (160.9 to 105.7), head and neck oncology (138.6 to 77.1), laryngology (53.8 to 12.5), otology (77.5 to 42.9), rhinology (142.2 to 44.4), and trauma (288.0 to 24.5). Protocol patients reported a mean 1-week postoperative pain score of 3.4, used opioids for a mean 3.1 days, and used only 39% of their prescribed opioids. Conclusion Preoperative counseling and standardization of a multimodal perioperative pain regimen for otolaryngology procedures can effectively lower amount of opioid prescriptions while maintaining low levels of postoperative pain.

2022 ◽  
pp. rapm-2021-102719
Lukas D Linde ◽  
Carey M Ogryzlo ◽  
Cassandra M Choles ◽  
Brian E Cairns ◽  
John L K Kramer

Background/importanceCannabinoids are emerging as an alternative pain management option, preliminarily supported by preclinical and clinical studies. Unwanted side effects from oral or inhaled cannabinoids remain, however, a major barrier to widespread use. Peripherally acting cannabinoids (eg, topically applied) may circumvent these side effects while providing localized pain management.ObjectiveOur purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of peripherally acting cannabinoids for pain management.Evidence reviewWe searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PubMed databases. Included studies examined the effect of topical/peripherally administered cannabinoids on pain ratings in humans, as well as pain-related outcomes in animals (eg, paw withdrawal). Due to a lack of trials, human studies were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Separate meta-analyses were performed for animal studies using radiant tail flick or paw withdrawal outcomes.FindingsOur search yielded 1182 studies following removal of duplicates, with 46 studies (6 human, 40 animal) included. Human studies (one randomized controlled trial and five case studies/series) reported no adverse events to topical cannabinoids and preliminary evidence of decreased pain ratings. Animal studies reporting tail flick (5) (2.81, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.69, p<0.001) and mechanical withdrawal (11) (2.74, 95% CI 1.82 to 3.67, p<0.001) reported prolonged responses (analgesia) in peripheral cannabinoid groups compared with controls.ConclusionsPreclinical animal studies provided low-quality evidence for peripherally administered cannabinoids to provide regional, antinociceptive effects. The scarcity of high-quality human studies underscores the need to translate preclinical evidence into well-controlled human trials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 37-41
Kamthe Kunal ◽  
Kohli Pooja ◽  
Wankhede Tushar

Despite the advances in technology and robotics, the basics of surgical management are not changed drastically. The science of life, Ayurveda has extensive knowledge of surgeries, including complicated procedures mentioned in the classical texts. However, with time, the ability of anaesthetics and analgesic agents has been lost. This resulted in the lagging of Ayurvedic Surgical wisdom and the rise of modern analgesics and anaesthetics in the market. These current products have potential side effects, and hence a safer and better alternative to these products can boost Ayurveda Surgery worldwide. Trailokya Vijaya Vati (TVV) is one such Ayurvedic formulation that is explained for its potent analgesic activity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TVV in post-operative pain management in patients undergoing anorectal procedures. The observational trial suggested a reduction in time to sleep (p < 0.05), less incidence of insomnia and undisturbed sleep in the treatment group than the control. The formulation was also well tolerated with no or minimal requirement of rescue analgesics. The efficacy observed in the study suggests the formulation can be explored further on a larger population with a diverse activity profile.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jenna R. Adalbert ◽  
Asif M. Ilyas

Abstract Background The United States opioid epidemic is a devastating public health crisis fueled in part by physician prescribing. While the next generation of prescribers is crucial to the trajectory of the epidemic, medical school curricula designated to prepare students for opioid prescribing (OP) and pain management is often underdeveloped. In response to this deficit, we aimed to investigate the impact of an online opioid and pain management (OPM) educational intervention on fourth-year medical student knowledge, attitudes, and perceived competence. Methods Graduating students completing their final year of medical education at Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University were sent an e-mail invitation to complete a virtual OPM module. The module consisted of eight interactive patient cases that introduced topics through a case-based learning system, challenging students to make decisions and answer knowledge questions about the patient care process. An identical pre- and posttest were built into the module to measure general and case-specific learning objectives, with responses subsequently analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Results Forty-three students (19% response rate) completed the module. All median posttest responses ranked significantly higher than paired median pretest responses (p <  0.05). Comparing the paired overall student baseline score to module completion, median posttest ranks (Mdn = 206, IQR = 25) were significantly higher than median pretest ranks (Mdn = 150, IQR = 24) (p <  0.001). Regarding paired median Perceived Competence Scale metrics specifically, perceived student confidence, capability, and ability in opioid management increased from “disagree” (2) to “agree” (4) (p <  0.001), and student ability to meet the challenge of opioid management increased from “neither agree nor disagree” (3) to “agree” (4) (p <  0.001). Additionally, while 77% of students reported receiving OP training in medical school, 21% reported no history of prior training. Conclusion Implementation of a virtual, interactive module with clinical context is an effective framework for improving the OPM knowledge, attitudes, and perceived competence of fourth-year medical students. This type of intervention may be an important method for standardizing and augmenting the education of future prescribers across multiple institutions.

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